States of Consciousness

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TCCD Fall 2011, Psych 2301, Velarde instructor. Text Wood, Wood, and Boyd 7th

Consciousness

a state of awareness, including a person's feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions

Altered states of consciousness

Changes in awareness produced by sleep, meditation, hypnosis, and drugs

Circadian rhythms

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle

suprachiasmatic nucleus

a cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus that receives input from the retina regarding light and dark cycles and is involved in regulating the biological clock

restorative theory of sleep

The theory that the function of sleep is to restore body and mind.

circadian theory of sleep

sleep evolved in humans out of harms way during the night (AKA evolutionary theory)

Drowsiness

sleepiness increases as alpha waves become more frequent than beta waves

Stage 1

Transitioning from waking to sleeping, irregular waves with occasional alpha

stage 2

from light to deeper sleep. sleep spindels - alternating calm and flashes of intense activity

stage 3

Deeper sleep; slow wave sleep. 20% of waves are Delta

stage 4

Deepest sleep; 50% of waves are now Delta.

parasomnias

a catergory of sleep disorders characterized by arousal or activation during sleep or sleep transitions; inclues sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep bruxism(teeth grinding), sleep-related eating disorder, and REM sleep behavior disorder

dyssomnias

Sleep disorders characterized by disturbances in the amount, quality or timing of sleep. Example include Insomnia, Sleep Apnea, and Narcolepsy

narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep

insomnia

sleep abnormalities, including difficulty in falling asleep and wakefulness through the night

sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

Lucid dreaming

the theory that conscious awareness of dreaming is a learnable skill that enables dreamers to control the direction and content of their dreams

manifest content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

latent content

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety valve.

cognitive theory of dreaming

The view that dreaming is thinking while asleep.

activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming

The hypothesis that dreams are the brain's attempt to make sense of the random firing of brain cells during REM sleep.

evolutionary theory of dreaming

vivid dreams enable people to rehearse skills needed to deal with threatening events

psychoactive drug

A drug that alters behavior, thought, or perception by altering biochemical reactions in the nervous system, thereby affecting consciousness

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