Genetic changes within a population over time
Evolution occurs in?
populations, not individuals
among first to identify extinct animals
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
first to propose organisms change over time for reasons other than divine intervention; proposed acquired traits
environment altered behavior causing use or dis-use
Journey of Beagle; "Principle of Geology" by Charles Lyell (earth is very old); Artificial selection; Thomas Malthus (more organisms are born than resources can support-- competition results)
Darwin proposes evolution occurs because of what?
favorable adaptation will allow what?
unfavorable adaptation is what?
favorable traits allow new what over time?
Natural Selection's 4 Key Points
1. Variation (individuals vary; some increase chance of survival other's don't)
2. Overproduction (Each generation can produce more than will survive)
3. Limit to Population Growth (only so many resources available)
4. Differential Reproductive Success (individuals better adapted to the environment are more likely to reproduce)
Combines Darwin's ideas with:
-modern genetics knowledge
-oldest on bottom; incomplete record, mostly aquatic; over 300,000 species recorder
similar structure found in related organisms
similar structures in unrelated organisms
development in different animals is controlled by same kind of gne
affections the expression of body patterns and limb formation
more closely DNA matches, more closely related
uses molecular clocks, fossil evidence and structural data; shows evolutionary history of group of related history
all of the alleles for the genes present in a population
proportion of genotype in a population
proportion of phenotype
proportion of specific allele
What did Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg come up with?
if the population is large, inheritance itself does not cause changes in allele ferquencies
Five Agents of Evolutionary Change
1. Mutation (chemical changes to DNA)
2. Gene Flow (migration)
3. Non-random mating (sexual selection)
4. Genetic drift (small population)
5. Selection (Natural Selection; Differential Survival)