Disorders involving gross deviations in mood (major depressive episodes, or manic episodes)
Mood disorders that are negative
Mood disorders that involve "positive" and negative.
Major Depressive Episode
Depressed mood, lasting at least two weeks. Includes cognitive symptoms (like feeling worthless or indecisive), disturbed physical functioning, and anhedonia (loss of pleasure/interest in usual activities)
Loss of pleasure/interest in usual activities
Major Depressive Disorder
Diagnosis for someone with recurrent major depressive episodes
Milder symptoms of depression than major depression, persists for at least 2 years (breaks < 2 months), can persist unchanged over long periods (> 20 years)
Bipolar I Disorder
Disorder involving alternating full major depressive and manic episodes.
Bipolar I Disorder
Average age of onset is 18 years. Tends to be chronic. Suicide is a common consequence.
High activity level, high risk, erratic behaviors. "Positive agitation."
More chronic version of bipolar disorder. Manic and major depressive episodes are less severe but last longer. Pattern must last for at least 2 years for adults.
16.1 % for major depression, 3.6% for dysthymia, 1.3% for bipolar
Gender more likely to suffer from major depression
Age at which gender difference in depression disappears
Equally affects males and females
Concordance rates are high in ___, much lower in fraternal twins
Heritability rates are higher for which gender?
Mood disorders are related to low levels of ...
Lower levels of serotonin allows other neurotransmitters (norepineph and dopamine) are uncontrolled in the brain
Hallmark of most mood disorders.
Strongly related to mood disorders. Causes poorer response to treatment, and a longer time before remission.
Learned Helplessness Theory of Depression
Related to lack of perceived control over life's events
Depressive Attributional Style
Stereotyping the world negatively
Negative outcomes are one's own fault
Believing future negative outcomes will be one's own fault
Believing negative events disrupt many life activities
Internal attributions, stable attributions, global attributions all contribute to a sense of ...
Cognitive Theory of Depression
Depressed persons engage in cognitive errors, and have a tendency to interpret life events negatively.
Aaron T. Beck
Came up with Cognitive Theory of Depression
Overemphasizing the negative
Negatives apply to all situations
Types of cognitive errors
Arbitrary inference, overgeneralization
Cognitive Errors and the Depressive Cognitive Triad
Think negatively about oneself, think negatively about the world, think negatively about the future
Strongly related to depression, for males. For females too, but stronger for males.
A lack of it predicts depression. Presence of it predicts recovery from depression.
Still used (Tofranil, Elavil), block reuptake of norepinephrine, negative side effects are common
Medications for mood disorders
Tricyclics, monoamine oxidase (MAO), Selective serotonergic re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Slightly more effective than tricyclics, must avoid tyramine (beer, red wine, cheese). More dangerous than tricyclics.
Selective Serotonergic Re-uptake Inhibitors
Most common class of antidepressant today. Prozac, Zoloft. Some negative side effects.
A common salt. Primary drug of choice for bipolar disorders. Side effects may be severe (dosage must be carefully monitored). 30%-60% reduced symptoms, but no one knows why.
Addresses cognitive errors in thinking. Also includes behavioral components. 10-20 sessions, lower relapse rate. 60%-70% effective.
Involves increased contact with reinforcing events. 55%-65% effective.