Earth Science Final

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149 Questions, Mrs.Charles Earth Science Final.

Theory

A (Blank) ia a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.

Meteorology

The study of Earth's atmosphere is known as (Blank).

State the problem, gather information, form a hypothesis, test, form a conclusion.

All of the following are possible steps of the scientific investigation.

Closed

A (Blank) system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.

Positive Feedback Mechanisms

Mechanisms that enhance or drive change are known as (Blank).

Renewable

A (Blank) resource is one which can be replenished over a relatively short time.

Diamond

What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?

Calcite

Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?

Gold has the highest density

A cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weighs 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams repectively. This indicates that (Blank).

Michas

Which one of the following mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate structure?

Hrdness

The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as (Blank).

Cleavage

The strong tendency of certain minerals break along smooth, parrallel planes is known as (Blank).

Crystalline, Chemical composition, Physical properties

Which one of the following is not true for minerals? (whats true about them)

Silicates

Which group of minerals are the most abundantin the Earth's crust?

Ore

Mineral deposits which have been identified and can be extracted profitably are called (Blank).

Become larger

As the rate of cooling increases, the size of the crystals that form (Blank).

Rhyolite

Which one of the following is an igneous rock?

Magma cools on surface

Igneous rock is formed when (Blank).

Frost Wedging

The most important mechanical weathering process is (Blank).

In a warm humid climate

Chemical weathering would be most effective (Blank).

Mineral content, Climate, and Topography

Which of these factors influence the type and rate of weathering?

Conatin fossils, Give clues to Earth history, and are important economically

Sedimentary rocks...

Fresh water coastal areas

Coal beds originate in (Blank).

Foliated

(Blank) is a strong, parallel alignment of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock.

Marble

Metamorphic rock of limestone.

Slate

Metamorphic rock of shale.

U-Shaped

A (Blank) cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.

Cirques and Aretes

(Blank) are erosinal features produced by valley/alpine glaciers.

Kettle

A (Blank) forms when a block of ice is buried in drift and melts, creating a pit.

Deflation

Desert pavement is the result of (Blank).

Channel size, Laminar flow, Gradient

Which factors influence stream velocity?

Water, Evaporation, Infultrating the ground, Moving to creeks.

Which is part of the water cycle?

Head Waters

If you were to examine the profile of a typical river, you would probably find that the gradient is (Blank).

Meander

At a bend in a river, the main erosion is (Blank).

Depositional and parallel to the stream

A natural levee is (Blank).

An Oxbow Lake

(Blank) is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.

Rapids and Whitewater

(Blank) are characteristics of downcutting streams and a youthful stage of valley evolution.

Water

The single most important erosional agent is.

The boundary between saturated, under, and unsaturated, over.

The water table is (Blank).

Saluable rocks/limestone

Caves most commonly form in (Blank).

Focus

The source of an earthquake is called the (Blank).

The design of the structture, Intensity of the earthquake, and the nature of the surface.

The ammount of destruction caused by earthqake vibrations is effected by (Blank).

Seismograph

The instrument the records earthquake events is called a (Blank).

Epicenter

The position on earths surface directly above the earthquakes source is called the (Blank).

Surface Wave

Overall, this type of seismic wave is the most destructive.

Arrival time of P and S waves

The distance between a seismological recording station and the earthquake source is determined from the (Blank).

Mesosaurus

(Blank) was an ancient reptile that lived in South America and Africa during the late Palezoic.

Alfred Wegner

In the early part of the 20th century, (Blank) argued forcefully for continental drift.

Pangea

The former late Palezoic super continent is known as (Blank).

India to Asia

The (Blank) is an example of a continet to continent collision.

Convection of heat from the mantel to the asthenosphere.

Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of earths lithosperic plates?

Identify a mechanism for the plates moving

The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegner could not (Blank).

Shield valcanoes over a hotspot

Which most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?

Subduction zones

Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sinks into the matel at (Blank)

The way the plates move realtive to each other.

A transform plate boundary is characterized by (Blank).

Mt. St. Helens

In 1980, (Blank) was the first cascade range valcano to erupt since Mt. Lassen in 1915-1916.

Basaltic

(Blank) magma is the most abundant type erupted at oceanic spreading centers.

Temperature of the magma content, and dissolved gases.

Which of the following factors help determine whether a volcanic eruption will be violently or relatively quiescent?

Shield Volcano

Kilauea is an example of a (Blank).

High viscosity, and gas content

(Blank) tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano.

Rock is less dense when its melted

Magma tends to rise toward Earth's surface principally because (Blank).

Circum atlantic belt "Ring of Fire"

Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located in a belt known as the (Blank).

Horizontaly compressive

Which stress situations result in folding of flat-lying, sedimentary strata?

The hanging wall moves down

In a normal fault (Blank).

San Andreas Fault

The (Blank) is the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates.

Appalachians

The (Blank) are a geologically old mountain range folded and deformed during Paleozoic.

Up-lift of areas recently glaciated

Which is an example of an isostatic movement?

Surface of erosion

An unconformity is a buried (Blank).

epoch

The subdivision of the geologic time scale that represents the longest time span is called an (Blank)

Having type of life

Consider the names of the eras in geologic time scale. What is meant by "zoic?"

Law of Superposition

What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger thand the bed below it?

Correlation

What of the following refers to the investigative process by which geologists identify and match sedimentary strata and other rocks of the same ages in different areas?

Realtive

By applying the law of superposition (Blank) dates can be determined.

Palezoic

The era of "acient life" is the (Blank) era.

4.5 billion years

What is the age of the Earth (in years) accepted by most scientist today?

Cenozoic

The era known as the "age of mammals" is the (Blank).

Precambriann era

Which era of geologic time spand about 88% of Earth's history?

Terrigeneous

Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called (Blank).

71%

The oceans cover approximately (Blank) percent of Earth's surface.

Southern hemisphere has more water

Concerningthe ditribution of land and water on Earth, which statements is true?

Salinity

The total amount of solid material dissolved in water is known as (Blank).

Rivers carrying salt to sea, and volcanoes out gassing

The dissolved materials in seawater are thought to originate from chemical weathering of rocks on the continents and also from (Blank).

Evaporation and precipataion

Salinity in the ocean is highest in regions where (Blank) is high and (Blank) is low.

Temperature and Salinity

Density in seawater is determined by (Blank).

Sea arch

Which one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?

Wave-cut platforms

A flat bench like surface cut in rock along a coast is a (Blank).

Right

Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the (Blank) of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.

Nitrogen

What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?

Dust reflects sunlight, creates optical effects, and makes condensation and clouds

With which is dust in the atmoshpere associated?

Drops .5 degrees

On the average, for every 1 km increase in altitude in the troposhpere, the air temperature (Blank).

Ultraviolet

Ozone filters out most of the (Blank) radiation in sunlight.

Troposphere

The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the (Blank).

Longer than

The wavelengths of radiation emitted by Earth are (Blank) those of the sun.

greenhouse

The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the (Blank) effect.

Day and night are equal

Which one of the folloeing statements is true about the equinoxes?

Convection, Conduction, and Radiation

What are mechanisms of heat transfer?

Cooler Summers

A place located along a windward coast will probably have (Blank).

Stratus Clouds

The cloud form that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is termed (Blank).

Cumulos Clouds

The cloud form that consist of globular cloud masses that take on a billowy or "cauliflower-like" structure is called (Blank).

Cirrus Clouds

High clouds that form delicate veil-like patches or extended wispy fibers are termed (Blank).

Nimbus Clouds

Thunder and lightning are associated with these clouds.

Air can't hold anymore water vapor so it must condense to liquid.

The dew point is the temperature at which...

Sublimination

The term (Blank) is used to describe the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without oassing through a liquid state.

Isotherms

Lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called (Blank).

Rapid rate of temperature change

Closely spaced isobars often indicate (Blank).

Counter-clock-wise towards the center

In the Northern Hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system (cyclone) blow (Blank).

Clear Weather

High air pressure systems are usually associated with (Blank).

Rainy/Stormy weather

Low air pressure systems are usually associated with (Blank).

The prevailing westerlies

Most of the United States is situated in which zone of prevailing winds?

Day

A sea breeze usually originates during the (Blank)

Jetstreams

Fast moving current of air found near the top of the troposphere are called (Blank).

They happen in the spring, in the mid-west, and form under cumulonimbus clouds

Which one of the following statements is true of tornadoes?

Large, form on warm oceans, and contain heavy rain and winds.

Hurricanes generally are (Blank).

Coal

The combustion of (Blank) has added great quantities of CO2 to the atmosphere.

Zodiac Belt

The belt of constellations through which all the planets move is called the (Blank).

Constellations

Patterns or configurations of stars named in honor of mythological characters are called (Blank).

We rotate at exactly the same rate

We only ever see one side of the Moon facing Earth because (Blank).

Rotation and Revolution

The two primary motions of the Earth are (Blank) and (Blank).

Gravity and Inertia

The planets stay in orbit around the Sun because of a balance between (Blank) and (Blank).

Big-Bang Theory

The (Blank) explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.

Jupiter

As the solar system was forming (Blank) came closest to undergoing nuclear fusion and becoming a second Sun.

Meteors

(Blank) are small, extraterrestrial particles that glow brightly and burn up as they travel through Earth's atmosphere.

Mars and Jupiter

The belt (orbit) of the asteroids is located between (Blank).

Venus

The high surfaces of this planet have been attributed to the greenhouse effect.

Uranus

The only planet in the solar system whose axis of rotation lies close to its equatorial plane is (Blank).

Comets

The spectacular bodies that have been compared to large, dirty snowballs are called (Blank).

Hydrogen and Helium

The Sun is composed almost entirely of two gases. They are (Blank) and (Blank).

Gravity

Which of the following is not considered a form of electromagnetic radiation?

Red

Which of the following colors has the longest wavelength?

The Doppler effect

To determine whther a celestial is approaching or receding Earth, astronomers employ (Blank).

Reflecting

Nearly all large optical telescopes built today are (Blank).

Solar Flares

The most explosive events to occur on the sun are (Blank).

Nuclear Fusion

The source of the Sun's energy is (Blank).

4 Hydrogen atoms into 1 Helium

The Sun produces energy by converting (Blank).

Redder

In the case of light, when source is moving away, its light appears (Blank) than it actually is.

Electromagnetic

Visible light emitted from the clestial bodies is only a small part of an array of energy called (Blank) radiation.

The Red-Shift Theory

The discovery that the universe appears to be expanding led to a widely accepted theory called (Blank).

Light-year

One of the most common units ised to express stellar distance is the (Blank).

Magnitude

The measure of a star's brightness is called its (Blank).

Stellar Parallax

The distance to stars can be determined from (Blank).

Galaxies

Which one of the objects listed belowhas the largest size?

Milky-Way

Our galaxy is called the (Blank).

Blue

Which color stars have the hottest surface temperature?

Red

Which color stars have the coolest surface temperature?

Magnitude

The measure pf a star's brightness is called its (Blank).

Blackhole

A star in which light cannot escape because of the immense gravitational pull at its surface is called a (Blank).

Main-sequence

The Sun belongs to this class of stars.

White Dwarf

The final stage for a star which is as massive as the Sun is a (Blank).

Absolute magnitude and Temperature

The H-R Diagram compares a stars (Blank) and (Blank).

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