Chapter 5 - Learners with Exceptionalities

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Learners with exceptionalities:

Students who need special help and resources to reach their full potential.

Disabilities:

Functional limitations or an inability to perform a certain act.

Gifts and talents:

Abilities at the upper end of the continuum that require additional support to reach full potential.

Special education:

Instruction designed to meet the unique needs of students with exceptionalities.

Intelligence:

The ability to acquire and use knowledge, solve problems and reason in the abstract, and adapt to new situations in the environment.

Fluid intelligence:

The flexible, culture-free mental ability to adapt to new situations and acquire knowledge quickly.

Crystallized intelligence:

Culture-specific mental ability, heavily dependent on experience and schooling.

Nature view of intelligence:

The assertion that intelligence is essentially determined by genetics.

Nurture view of intelligence:

The assertion that emphasizes the influence of the environment on intelligence.

Ability grouping:

The process of placing students of similiar abilities into groups and attempting to match instruction to the needs of these groups.

Tracking:

Placing students in different classes or curricula on the basis of achievement.

Joplin plan:

Homogeneous grouping in reading, combined with heterogeneous grouping in other areas.

Learning Styles

Students' personal approaches to learning, problem solving, and processing information.

Mainstreaming

The practice of moving students with exceptionalities from segregated settings into general education classrooms.

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

A policy that places students in as typical an educational setting as possible while still meeting the students' special needs

Adaptive Fit

The degree to which a school environment accomodates the student's needs and the degree to which a student can meet the requirements of a particular school setting.

Inclusion

A comprehensive approach to educating students with exceptionalities that advocates a total, systematic, and coordinated web of services.

Due Process

The guarantee of parents' rights to be involved in identifying and placing their children in special programs, to access school records, and to obtain an independent evaluation if they're not satisfied with the school's evaluation.

Individualized education program (IEP)

A written statement that provides a framework for delivering a free and appropriate education (FAPE) to every eligible students with a disability.

Disorder

A general malfunction of mental, physical, or psychological processes.

Handicap

A condition imposed on a person's functioning that restricts the individual's abilities.

People-first language

Language in which a student's disability is identified after the student is named.

Learning disabilities

Difficulty in acquiring and using reading, writing, reasoningm listening, or mathematical abilities.

Discrepancy model of identification

One method of identifying students with problems that focuses on differences between achievement and intelligence tests or subtests within either.

Reponse to intervention model of identification

A method of identifying a learning disability that focuses on the specific classroom instructional adaptations that teachers use and their success.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

A learning problem characterized by difficulties in maintaining attention

Intellectual disabilitiy

A disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior

Adaptive behavior

A person's ability to perform the functions of everyday living.

Behavior disorders

Serious and persistant age- inappropriate behaviors that result in social conflict, personal unhappiness, and often school failure.

Bipolar disorder

A condition characterized by alternative episodes of depressive and manic states.

Autism spectrum disorder

A description of a cluster of disorders characterized by impaired social relationships and skills and often associated with highly unusual behavior.

Communication disorders

Exceptionalities that interfere with students' abilities to recieve and understand information from others and express their own ideas.

Speech disorders (expressive disorders)

Problems in forming and sequencing sounds

Language disorders (receptive disorders)

Problems with understanding language or using language to express ideas.

Visual Handicap

An uncorrectable visual impairment that interferes with learning

Partial hearing impairment

An impairment that allows a student to use a hearing aid and to hear well enough to be taught through auditory channels.

Deaf

A hearing impairment that requires the use of the other sense, usually sight, to communicate.

Acceleration

Programs for students who are gifted and talented that keep the curriculum the same but allow students to move through it more quickly

Enrichment

Programs for students who are gifted and talented that provide alternate instruction

Curriculum-based assessment

Measurement of learners' performance in specific areas of the curriculum

Between- class grouping

Divides students in a certain grade into levels, such as high, medium, and low.

Within-class grouping

Divides students in a certain class into groups, typically based on reading and math scores.

Curriculum-based assessment

Measurement of learners' performance in specific areas of the curriculum.

Self-regulation

The ability to direct and control one's own actions and emotions.

Assistive technology

A set of adaptive tools that support students with disabilities in learning activities and daily life tasks.

Collaborative consultation

The process of general and special education teachers working together to create effective learning experinces for students with exceptionalities.

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