lab a&p 2

Created by mchavez89 

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definition of tissue is

a group of cells similar to one another in structure that perform a common or related function

epithelium tissue lines what

body cavities and covers the body's external surface.

nervous and muscle tissue transmit

electrochemical impulses

connective tissue does what to body organs?

anchors, packages and supports

cells may absorb, secrete and filter what type of tissue?

epithelium tissue

nervous tissue is most involved in what:

regulating and controlling body functions.

what tissue's major function is to contract?

muscle tissue

synthesize hormones are in

epithelium tissue

the most durable tissue type

connective tissue

abundant nonliving extracellular matrix

connective tissue

the most widespread tissue in the body is

connective tissue

tissue that forms nerves and the brain are

nervous

Describe 5 general characteristics of epithelial tissue

cells fit closely together; form sheetlike membranes; little intercellular material between the cells; avascular; membrane has a free edge, generally has a high regenerative capacity

on what basis are epithelial tissues classified?

number of layers and cell shape

5 major functions of epithelium tissue in the body are:

protection, absorption, filtration and secretion, secretion and sensory reception

Example of funtion of epithelium protection:

skin

Example of funtion of epithelium absorption:

cells lining digestive tract

Example of funtion of epithelium filtration and secretion:

kidney tubule cells

Example of funtion of epithelium secretion:

glandular cells or kidney cells

Example of funtion of epithelium sensory reception:

free endings of sensory neurons

how does the function of stratified epithelia differ from the function of simple epithelia?

stratified epithelia have more layers for protection. Simple epithelia allow materials to move across them and are less protective.

where is ciliated epithelium found?

lining of the respiratory tract and of the male and female reproductive tracts e.g., ductus deferens and uterine tubes.

what role does the ciliated epithelium play?

in the respiratory tract, it acts to sweep mucus superiorly away from the lungs. in the reproductive tract it acts to propel sperm or ova along the tract.

transitional epithelium, how does it differ structurally from other stratified squamous epithelia?

when stretched, its top layers are squamous, when not stretched, its top layers are pillow shaped

How do the structural differences of transitional epithelium support its function?

the surface cells have the ability to slide over one another, increasing the internal volume of the organ e.g., bladder, as it fills and maintaining an intact lining whether stretched or contracted

How do the endocrine and exocrine glands differ in structure and function?

Endocrine glands are ductless glands. They produce hormones, Exocrine glands maintain their ducts and manufacture secretions of various types, which are ducted to the body or membrane surface.

lining of the esophagus

stratified squamous

lining of the stomach

simple columnar

alveolar sacs of lungs

simple squamous

tubules of the kidney

simple cuboidal

epidermis of the skin

stratified squamous

lining of bladder; peculiar cells that have the ability to slide over each other

transitional

forms the thin serous membranes; a single layer of flattened cells

simple squamous

what are the three general characteristics of connective tissues?

common origin of connective tissue from mesenchyme, varied degrees of vasculacity and a large amount of extracellular matrix that varies with tissue type all characterize.

what functions are preformed by connective tissue?

protect, support, and bind together other tissues of the body

How are the functions of connective tissue reflected in its structure?

there is a wide variety in the structures of connective tissue. This is relected in the wide variety of functions they perfrom. Also, the large amount of nonliving matrix seen provides the strength needed to protect the body and carry out the normal functions of the body.

attaches bones to bones and muscles to bones

dense connective tissue

acts as a storage depot for fat

adipose

the dermis of the skin

dense

makes up the intervertebral discs

fibrocartilage

forms the hip bone

osseous

composes basement membranes; a soft packaging tissue with a jellylike matrix

areolar

forms the larynx the costal cartilages of the ribs and the embryonic skeleton

hyaline cartilage

provides a flexible framework for the external ear

elastic cartilage

firm structurally amorphous matrix heavily invaded with fibers; appears glassy and smooth

hyaline cartilage

matrix hard owing to calcium salts; provides levers for muscles to act on

osseous

walls of large arteries

elastic

What do adipose cells remind people of a ring with a single jewel?

they contain a large fat-filled vacuole occupying most of the cell volume. The nucleus is pushed to the periphery, giving the cell a "signet ring" appearance.

what two physiological characteristics are highly developed in neurons, nerve cells?

irritablility and conductivity

in what ways are neurons similar to other cells?

they constain a nucleus and the usual organelles.

How are neurons and other cells different?

their cytoplasm is drawn out into long processes.

describe how the unique structure of a neuron relates to its function in the body

neurons conduct impulses over relatively long distances in the body. This is facilitated by their long cytoplasmic extensions.

tissue: voluntarily controlled

skeletal

tissue: involuntarily controlled

cardiac, smooth

tissue: striated

skeletal, cardiac

tissue: has a single nucleus in each cell

cardiac, smooth

tissue: has several nuclei per cell

skeletal

tissue: found attached to bone

skeletal

tissue: allows you to direct your eyeballs

skeletal

tissue: found in the walls of the stomach, uterus and arteries

smooth

tissue: contains spindle-shaped cells

smooth

tissue: contains branching cylindrical cells

skeletal

tissue: contains long, nonbranching cylindrical cells

skeletal

tissue: has intercalated discs

cardiac

tissue: concerned with locomotion of the body as a whole

skeletal

tissue: changes the internal volume of an organ as it contacts

cardiac

tissue: tissue of the heart

cardiac

what tissue is this, and find the connective tissue, cell, and basement membrane

simple columnar epithelial; connective tissue is underneath the cells, the cells are the long strands and the basement membrane is between the connective tissue and the cell

what tissue is this, and find the cilia, connective tissue, and basement membrane

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial; cilia is on top, basement membrane is between the cell and the connective tissue

what tissue is this, and find the nuclei of epithelial cells and basement membrane

stratified squamous epithelial; on top little black dots and basement membrane is seperated between the pink and purple

what tissue is this, and find the connective tissue, and basement membrane

transitional epithelial; connective tissue is on the bottom and basement membrane is seperating the cells from connective tissue

what tissue is this, and find the nucleus of fibroblast, mast cell, and fibers of matrix

Areolar connective tissue; nucleus are in the center of the little cells, mast cells are the big groups of cells and the fibers of matrix are the lines

what tissue is this, and find the nucleus of fibroblast, and collagen fibers

dense fibrous connective tissue or dense regular connective tissue, nucleus are the little dots and the collagen fibers are the wavy lines

what tissue is this, and find the canaliculi, lacuna, and matrix

bone osseous tissue; canaliculi are the rings, lacuna are the black spots and the matrix is the white area inbetween.

what tissue is this, and find the matrix, chondrocyte, and lacunae

hyaline cartilage; the matrix is the space between, the chondrocyte is the center of the cell and the lacunae is the outter lining of the cells

what tissue is this, and find the nuclei of fat cells, and vacuole containing droplet

adipose tissue; the nuclei of the fat cells are the circles in the webs, vacuole containing droplet is the big round centers

what tissue is this, and find the cell, cell, and nuclei

smooth muscle tissue; smooth muscle cell is the round dots and the nuclei is in the middle

what tissue is this, and find the nuclei

skeletal muscle tissue; nuclei are little dots

what tissue is this, and find the intercalated discs, and nucleus

cardiac muscle tissue; the discs are the black likes along the strips and the nucleus are the small dots

the two basic tissues of which the skin is composed are:

dense irregular connective tissue and stratified squamous epithelium

dense irregular connective tissue makes up the:

dermis

dense irregular connective tissue and stratified squamous epithelium make up the:

epidermis

the tough water-repellent protien found in the epidermal cells is called

keratin

what two pigments contribute to skin color?

melanin and carotene

a localized concentration of melanin is referred to as a:

freckle

four protective functions of the skin are:

prevents desiccation, prevents bacterial invasion, protects against thermal damage and protects against UV radiation.

translucent cells in the thick skin containing keratin fibrils are:

stratum lacidum

dead cells are called

stratum corneum and lacidum

dermal layer responsible for fingerprints are

papillary layer

vascular region is in the

dermis, papillary layer and reticular layer

major skin area that produces derivatives (nails and hair)

epidermis

epidermal region exhibiting the most rapid cell division

stratum basale

scalelike dead cells, full of keratin that constantly slough off

stratum corneum

mitotic cells filled with intermediate filaments

stratum spinosum

has abundant elastic and collagenic fibers

dermis as a whole; reticular layer

location of melanocytes and tactile merkel cells

stratum basale

area where weblikepre-keratin filaments first appear

stratum spinosum

region of areolar connective tissue

papillary layer

what kind of granules extruded from the keratinocytes prevent water loss by diffusion through the epidermis

laminated

fibers in the dermis are produced by

fibroblasts

glands that respond to rising androgen levels are the

sebaceous and apocrine glands

phagocytic cells that occupy the epidermis are called

epidermal dendritic or langerhans cells

a unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and a nerve fiber is a

tactile or Merkel disc

what layer is present in the thick skin but not in thin skin?

stratum lucidum

what cell-to-cell structure holds the cells of the stratum spinosum tightly together

desmosomes

what substance is manufactured in the skin that plays a role in calcium absorption elsewhere in the body?

vitamin D3

list the sensory receptors found in the dermis of the skin:

free nerve endings for pain, temperature, messiners corpuscles for touch in the hairless skin, pacinian corpuscles for pressure

a nurse tells a doctor that a patient is cyanotic, define cyanotic

a blue cast to the skin

what does cyanotic presence imply?

inadequate oxygenation of the blood

what is a bedsore decubitus ulcer?

localized area of tissue necrosis and death

why do ulcers occur?

pressure areas point of increased pressure over bony areas restrict the blood supply to the area

produces an accumulation of oily material that is known as a blackhead

sebaceous glands

tiny muscles, attached to hair folicles, that pull the hair upright during fright or cold

arrector pili

perspiration glands with a role in temperature control

sweat gland---eccrine

sheath formed of both epithelial and connective tissues

hair follicle

less numerous type of perspiration-prouducing gland; found mainly in the pubic and axillary regions

sweat gland--apocrine

found everywhere on the body except the palms of hands and soles of the feet

sebaceous glands

primarily dead/keratinized cells

nail and hair

specialized nerve ending that respond to temperature, touch, etc.

cutaneous receptors

secretes a lubricant for hair and skin

sebaceous glands

"sports" a lunule and cuticle

nail

describe two integumentary system mechanisms that help in regulating body temperature:

1. when capillary blood dlow to the skin and enhanced by nervous system controls, heat radiates from the skin surface; restriction of blood flow conserves body heat. 2. activity of sweat glands i.e., when perspiration evaporates from the skin surface, heat is lost.

with what substance in the bond paper does the iodine painted on the skin react?

the starch

based on class data, which skin area--the forearm or palm of hand--has more sweat glands?

palm

which other body areas would if tested prove to have a high density of sweat glands?

face and axillae

what organ system controls the activity of the eccrine sweat glands?

nervous system

name the three common fingerprint patterns:

loops, arches and whorls

cutaneous membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions

epithelial, connective tissue; found in the skin; functions are: secretion, oil and sweat, waterproofing, keratin, bacteriostatic acid mantle and sebum, and protect against chemical and mechanical damage keratinization and continuity.

mucous membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions

epithelial, connective tissue; lining of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital tracts; general functions are secretion mucus, absorption, ciliated for movement of substances.

serous membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions

epithelial, connective tissue; lining of closed ventral body cavities; secretion serous fluid; decreases friction.

synovial membrane is what type of tissue, its location and general functions

connective tissue; lining of the joint cavities of freely moveable joints; secretionsynovial fluid; decreases friction.

membrane type in joints, bursae and tendon sheaths

synovial

epithelium of this membrane is always simple squamous epithelium

serous

membrane types not found in the ventral cavity

synovial

the only membrane type in which goblet cells are found

mucous

the dry membrane with keratinizing epithelium

cutaneous

has parietal and visceral layers

serous

knowing that -itis is the suffix meaning "inflammation of" what do peritonitis, pleurisy and pericarditis patological conditions have in common?

all are inflammations of serous membrane

why are these conditions accompanied by great deal of pain?

when serous membranes become inflamed, insufficient serous fluid may be produced. As a result, friction increases and adhesions may form.

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