A.P. US History- Chapter 2 I.D.'s

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Hernan Cortes

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)

Martin Luther

a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.

John Smith

Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.

John Calvin

Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)

Joint-stock company

A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.

Jamestown

First permanent English settlement, located near the Chesapeake Bay.

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

Virginia Company of London

The Virginia Company of London was a joint stock company that recieved a charter from King James I to create a settlement in America. They provided the funding for the development of the Jamestown colony.

Separatist Puritans

Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separatists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth.

Non-Separatist Puritans

people who believed in purifying the Anglican Church but not completely separating themselves from it

New Amsterdam

a settlement established by the Dutch near the mouth of Hudson River and the southern end of Manhattan Island

Conquistadors

Spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain

Encomiendas

rights to demand taxes or labor from Native Americans

Market economy capitalism

an economic system based upon the fundamentals of private property, freedom, self-interest, and prices

Elizabethan Sea Dogs

were English adventurers or pirates-Englishmen won the command of the sea under the consummate leadership of Sir Francis Drake, the first of modern admirals.

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