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What is the function of the counterstain in the acid-fast staining procedure?

The counterstain will stick to the non-acid fast stain. To tell the difference if its a acid-fast or non-acid fast.

Are acid-fast bacteria gram positive or gram negative?

Neither , acid-fast bacteria has (mycolic acid) lipid layer will reject the stain.

For what diseases would you use an acid-fast stain?

TB: mycobacterium tuberculosis

What makes a microorganism non-acid fast?

its lacking the mycolic acid which contains 60% lipids.

What chemical is responsible for the acid-fast property of mycobacteria?

mycolic acid

Is a Gram stain an adequate subsitute for an acid-fast stain? Why or Why not?

no, it wont hold the stain due to the (mycolic acid) lipid

what is the relationship between the presence of capsules and bacterial pathogenicity?

The presence of capsules increase the pathogenicity of the bacteria.

In staining bacterial capsules, why is heat fixing omitted?

it will melt, distort the cell

Name several bacteria that have capsules.

klebsiella pneumoniae, bacillus subtillus, streptococcus pneumoniae

How is the capsule stain use in clinical microbiology?

to diagnose and determine organisms virulence (a degree to which a pathogen can cause a disease)
*will it kill you or not

Of what value is a capsule to a bacterium?

helps bacteria adhere to surfaces and resist flushing.

Name two disease-causing bacteria that produce endospores

A) clostridium
B) bacillus

What is the function of the endospores?

Protection

Why are endospores so difficult to stain?

Because they are deep within the cell. They resist the stain surrounded by keratin

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