what percentage of time is carb in linear form?
what is sorbitol? what does it cause
a sugar alcohol causing diahrehea
Name three monosacch
Name some disaccharides
name the linkage on Lactose
Is amylase specific when it cuts?
is glucoamylase specific when it cuts?
Yes, it is an exoglucosidase that cuts from non-reducing end
what type of sacch are made after the cuts
di and polysacch including dextrin
If amylase cuts in the middle of starch, what is it called?
endoglucosidase or internal cleavage
Name of hormones in pancreas that aid in digestion
secretin and CCK
What is problem with alpha pancreatic amylase(which is upregulated by CCK)
it cant cut three glycositic bonds
What are the three bonds and 4 sugars?
already know linkage for lactose and fructose
Steps in pathway of digestion
1. alpha amylase cuts starch into pieces
2. Amylase inactivated in stomach low pH
3. Pancreatic alpha amylase is upregulated by CCK to further cleave
4. 3 glycosytic bonds are resitant to cleavage(need new membran enz to cleave them)
5. send to mucosal cell w. memb bound enzy complexes
6. Cleave into mono sach gluc, fruc, galact
General name of enzyme complexes that cleave these sugars
Name the 4 Enzyme complexes
1. Sucrase-isomaltase Complex
2. glucoamylase complex
3. lactase complex
which of these is rate limiting in lactose digestion?
How many bonds can sucrase-isomaltase complex degrade?
sucrose, maltose, isomaltose
from what end does glucoamylase cleave?
Is it an endo or exoglucosidase?
non-reducing end of amylose.
Is trehalose a reducing sugar?
Is it very reactive?
name and describe two types of lactose intolerance
Reduced lactase mRNA translation
Caused by intestinal disease or surgery damage
fill in on slide 15
what is raffinose
a triose sugar from green beens.
Problem with raffinose
A glycosytic bond in there cant be degraded by us so it makes us gassy and fluid overload
after digestion with those 4 complexes, what monosaccharides are left?
glucose, fructose, and galactose
how are they absorbed?
1. passive transport
2. active transport
Name the transporters and what they transport
1. Glut 5 passively transports fructose intro cell
2. SGLT-1 actively tports glucose into cell
how is SGLT-1 an Active transporter
secondary, NAKA pumps NA out so SGLT-1 can pump Na down its gradient and pull glucose with it
More on slide 21
of amylopectin and amylose which is branched?
amylopectin bc it is more complicated and has a more complicated name
What is problem with amylopectin digestion?
occurs too fast so there is a large insulin spike-->overuse digestive system-->diabetes
Glycemic index. is a high number good or bad?
bad --> fast and furious glucose peak
Name two problems with a high glycemic index food
absorption is based on active tprot so uses energy
foods with mainly amylopectin so overuse digestive system(high insulin peak)
what enzyme complex cuts dextrins?
what does secretin do?
stimulates release of bicarbonate in sm intestine to neutralize stomach acidity
what does CCK do?
stimulates pancreas to release alpha amylase
whats the difference btwn alpha amylase and glucoamylase?
alpha amylase is an endoglucosidase and is found in saliva and pancreas and glucoamylase is an exoglucosidase and found in the intestinal brush border cell