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This contributed to Rome unifying Italy and the lands surrounding the Meditarranean.

Rome's central location.

Italy is a land of hills and mountains. Name the mountains.

Alps to the north; The Apennines through the center of Italy.

Describe Italy's natural resource advantages.

Long growing season suitable for wide variety of crops.
Forested hillsides providing timber for construction and fuel.
Etruria rich in Iron and other metals.

What made possible the merging of hilltop communities and the founding of Rome?

The draining of the swap which became the site of the Roman Forum.

What was the essential economic activity of the early Roman state?

Agriculture.

Social status, political privilege and fundamental values were related to...

Land ownership

A "council of Elders" that played a dominant role in Roman Politics.

The Senate- which was made up of heads of wealthy families.

First of seven Roman Kings

Romulus

I led the overthrow of Tarqunius Superbus, the last Roman King and instituted a republic.

Brutus, the liberator.

res publica

republic

True of false, the republic was a democracy as we would define it.

False, it was an assembly of male citizens and votes of wealthy counted more than the votes of poor.

Originally an advisory body to the King, this body effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire.

The Senate

How did one become a Senator and what was the length of term.

Fathers nominated son for lifetime terms.

When was Rome founded?

There is archeological evidence of activity on Palatine Hill around 1000 BCE

When was the Republic founded?

507 BCE

Another name for the Roman elite

patricians

This led to periodic conflict in Rome.

Inequality between the elite and the majority of the population. This was known as the Conflict of Orders.

Another name for the non-elite class of Romans.

Plebeians

How did Plebeians force the Patricians into political concessions?

Refusal to work or fight. Withdrawal from the city.

What are the tribunes?

As a result of political reforms, this group was drawn from the non-elite class and could veto actions of the senate. They were sometimes "bought off" by the patricians to avoid vetoes.

The oldest living male in the family in Rome.

Paterfamilias

Define auctoritas

A quality posessed by important male members of roman society that elicited obedience.

Describe the patron/client relationship.

Mutually beneficial relationship between classes. Clients sought help and protection from Patrons (legal advice, physical protection, loans). In return, clients worked, fought and provided political support for the Patrons.

The patron/client relationship demonstrates what about Roman life?

Inequality was accepted, institutionalized and a system of mutual benefits and obligations.

Describe the role of women in Rome.

No public role. Women were like children in the eyes of the law- under the authority of her paterfamilias and unable to own property or represent herself legally.

Who was the paterfamilias for a woman.

The paterfamilias of her family until she married, then the paterfamilias of her husband's family

Who had greater freedoms, Greek or Roman women?

Roman women. Over time they gained some economic freedom and influence. Roman poets professed their love for educated and outspoken women.

What was the name of the invisible forces Romans believed in?

Numina

Name some numina.

Vesta- fire
Janus- who guarded the door
Penates- who watched over food in the cupboard.
Jupiter- god of the sky
Mars- agriculture and war.

Romans sought this covenant between the Gods and the Roman state.

pax deorum- peace of the gods; obtained through sacrafices and other rituals.

How did the concept of the Roman Gods change after contact with the greeks?

They equated their Gods with greek gods. Jupiter- Zeus; Mars- Ares and they adopted Greek myths.

This was the chief instrument of Roman expansion.

The army

Compare Greek and Roman armies.

Equipment was similar, but the Roman battle lines of independent units were more flexible and maneuverable than the phalanx. Roman armies were better trained and more disciplined.

Rome's three wars with these tribe expted their control over the entire Italian peninsula.

The Samnite tribes.

How did the Romans differ from the Greeks regarding citizenship for conquered peoples?

The Greeks did not afford citizenship to conquered peoples whereas Rome often did. They coopted the most influential and thus the conquered interests became aligned with Rome's interests.

How did Rome grow its Army?

Conquered people, as citizens, were required to become soldiers.

Roman war success was often a result of this.

Huge size of Army enabled them to endure higher casualties and prevail by sheer numbers.

Rome emerged in 202 BCE as the unchallenged master of the western mediterranean as a result of two long and bloody wars with whom?

Carthage.

I was Rome's most brilliant general and conquered Gaul (France) between 59 and 51 BCE for Rome's first foothold in Europe.

Gaius Julius Ceasar

At first, Rome was reluctant to occupied conquered lands. This changed and Rome began direct administration after failed settlements here.

The Greek world.

Over time the Roman practice of autonomy and provincial administration of conquered lands became inadequate because...

Officials were incompetent and often merely political friends.

While Italian farmers were away in military service investors took their farms by purchase, deception or intimidation and created these large estates.

Latifundia, or "broad estates"

Latifundia owners switched from grain to more profitable crops creating

increased reliance on expensive imported grain for food.

Cheap slave labor provided by POWs created

job shortages for normal Romans

Exppensive food and job shortages in Rome created

economic unrest and riots

Latifundia decreased land owners, a prerequisitie for military service. This man promised farms in exchange for military service.

Gaius Marius, who served six terms as consul

Gaius Marius began a trend, continued by these ambitious men of more loyalty to an individual than the state. This led to civil war.

Sulla, Pompey, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Octavian

I was a military dictator who fundamentally altered the realities of power but maintained forms of the Roman Republic.

Octavian

The government in the first 3 centuries CE in Rome that replaced the Republic.

Principate,

Princeps

First among equals

Equites

Class of well to do merchants and landowners who were ust beneath the senatorial class.

Who allied himself with the Equites

Augustus

The Equites provided Rome with

Bureaucracy that could efficiently and capably manage the empire.

Augustus

Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. (151)

Deified

Roman emperors came to be worshiped as gods after their death.

Digest of Justinian

6th century culmination of a long process of development and interpretation of the law. Remains the foundation of european law.

atrium

In Rome, a rectangular courtyard with an open skylight that let in sun and rain for drinking and washing.

Frescoes

paintings made on wet plaster walls

In Rome, large cities created these problems

Adequate food, water and sewage removal.

pax romana

means "Roman Peace;" specifically the term that refers to the peace and stability that Rome provided. Enhanced commerce and the spread of technology, culture and religion.

Romanization

The process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire. Romans did not seek to Romanize them, but the subjugated people pursued it. (155)

Emperor Caracalla

Gave Roman citizenship to every free person in the empire.

Why did Jews oppose Roman rule?

Roman governors were insensitive to their belief in one god.

Because Jews opposed Roman rule they waited on what?

The messiah-- "anointed one"-- a military leader that would liberate the Jews from roman rule.

Jesus

Jew from Gallilee who sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices.

Christianity

A belief system arising after the crucifixion of Jesus that hailed him as the messiah.

Pontius Pilate

The Roman governor of Judea. Although he found Jesus guilty of nothing, he sentenced him to death by crucifixion.

Paul

Jew from Greek city of Tsarsus who spread the word of Christianity to non jews.

Most of the initial converts to Christianity were..

Disenfranchised people. Women, slaves and the urban poor.

Why were Christian persecuted by the romans?

They were monotheists forbidden to worship other gods.

Technological triumphs of Rome

Roads, bridges, arches, aqueducts

aqueducts

Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities

Roman arches

allowed distribution of great weights without thick supporting walls.

Augustus' position on expansion.

He argued against it because the costs of administration and defense exceeded the incremental revenues. As a result, Rome began to switch from an offensive to defensive military strategy.

Parthian kingdom

Heir to mesopotamian and persian empires. Engaged in long rivalry with Rome that sapped resources without territorial gain.

Third Century Crisis

political, military, and economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century C.E.: frequent changes of ruler, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, and near-destruction of long-distance commerce.

Economic decline in Rome associated with Third Century Crisis

Caused people to leave cities and move to countryside to seek protection and employment from wealthy landowners. Demographic shift toward socio-economic structure of the middle ages.

Diocletian

Roman emperor of 284 C.E. Attempted to deal with fall of Roman Empire by splitting the empire into two regions run by co-emperors. Also brought armies back under imperial control, and attempted to deal with the economic problems by strengthening the imperial currency, forcing a budget on the government, and capping prices to deal with inflation. Civil war erupted upon his retirement.

Constantine

Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a tolerated/favored religion.

Christianity flourished under Constantine

Emphasized salvation, but so did some other religions. The rule of Constantine and the political advantages granted Christians made the religion explode.

Fate of eastern and western Roman empires

Western is overrun by germanic peoples and comes to an end. Eastern continues to flourish.

Byzantine

Long-lasting empire centered at Constantinople; it grew out of the end of the Roman empire and carried legacy of Roman greatness and was the only classical society to survive into the early modern age; it reached its early peak during the reign of Justinian (483--565).

Corpus Juris Civilis

New code of the Roman Law decided by Justinian I in 529 CE that made Orthodox Christianity the law of the land. It means the "body of civil law"., New code of the Roman Law decided by Justinian I in 529 CE that made Orthodox Christianity the law of the land. It means the "body of civil law".

Hagia Sophia

Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.

qin

A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). The Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved subjects. (163)

zheng

Shi Huangdi, first emperor

primogeniture

right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son, abolished by qin government.

Standardization in Qin government

Created unified civilization. Standards for laws, punishments, weights and measures, coinage, writing, etc.

legalists

Chinese school of political thought; served Qin dynasty and subsequent dynasties; stressed need for the absolute power of the emperor; power enforced through strict application of laws.

li si

legalist prime minister that led crackdown on confucian scholars

clash with nomads

Led to oppressive treatment of peasants and construction of Great Wall.

great wall of china

Originally thought to be defensive, now thought to be offensive to take in newly captured territory.

xiongnu

A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these 'barbarians,' as they called them, and dispersed them in 1st Century. (168)

Military and labor

Compulsory service under Qin regime. Harsh and oppressive.

Gaozu

the throne name of Liu Bang, one of the rebel leaders who brought down Qin and founded Han dynasty in 202 BCE. Modest background and peasant qualities; denounced harshness and laws of Qin but was a Legalist; frugal to cut taxes; stored excess grain. Appeased Xiongnu.

empress lu

Gaozu's formidable wife who held the power after he died and the throne passed to a child.

wu

Emperor and grandson of empress lu. Expanded powers. Launched military operations. Stopped appeasement of xiongnu.

sima qian

a Chinese scholar, astronomer, and historian; author of the most important history of China, Historical Records. Castrated by Wu. This will happen to you also Ferf, if you don't study your AP world!

xinjiang and Gansu

Wu expansion targets that laid the foundations for the Silk Road.

Silk Road

An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay.

Han Government monopolies.

To finance Wu's military efforts, his government created monopolies on high profit commodities such as salt, iron and alcoholic beverages. These measures were highly controversial because you should not screw with a man's beer.

Adoption of Confucianism

momentous development under Wu. Both sides had to compromise.

Fundamental unit of Chinese society

the family. Not only living but all previous generations. headed by oldest male.

Parental authority

did not end with childhood. could take an adult child to court for disobedience.

Importance of family structure.

Heirarchy mirrored in the state. All required to make contributions.

Role of women.

Depended on location within social institutions. Could be influential political figures. Young brides had to prove themselves.

Ban Zhao

Ancient China's greatest woman scholar. Wrote Lessons for Women - a book of moral advice for unmarried palace ladies. Encouraged obedience to males but plead for education and respect for girls.

Chang'an

City in the Wei Valley in eastern China. It became the capital of the Zhou kingdom and the Qin and early Han Empires. Its main features were imitated in the cities and towns that sprang up throughout the Han Empire. >(p. 164)

Gentry

In China, the class of prosperous families, next in wealth below the rural aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel. (166)

Technology under the Hans

Astronomical observation of the planets, watermills, horse collars, paper, horse breeding and reliable crossbow trigger. Roads and canals and even an early seismometer.

Religion

spirits of rain, wind and soil. Sima Qian wrote of connection between religion and power.

daoism

popular with commoners. rejected heirarchy and rules of confucian elite. led to popular uprisings.

Buddhism

spread slowly carried by merchants on Silk Road. Reverence for classical text similar to Confucianism- rejection of material goods similar to Daoism.

Wang Mang

ruled for around 15 years in China; tried helping the poor by establishing granaries and land reform. Was blamed for a massive flood of the yellow river.

red eyebrows

Chinese insurgents who killed Wang Mang

Factors contributing to downfall of Han

Military expenditures drained resources. Economic inequity among classes. Military conscription broke down requiring expensive professional soldiers.

cao cao

General who formerly terminated the Han dynasty.

Political Similarities between Roman and Han governments.

rose from small states due to discipline and military toughness, able to subdue neighbors, and unified widespread territories under central government. Both had to grant local autonomy to distant lands.

Economic similarities Rome and Han

Dependence on agriculture and small farmer. Military conscription or compulsory labor. Both seized land from rich and gave to poor.

Social similarities Rome and Han

Transitions from homogeneous populations to diverse. Cultural unity brought to new regions that persists today. Conquered peoples voluntarily accepted cultural beliefs and practices.

Technological similarities Rome and Han

Roads built for military fostered commerce and cultural unity.

Military similarities

similar problems in defense caused by long borders and distance and aggressive neighbors. Military expense caused taxes to rise and cost loyalty of populace.

Social and Political Differences between Rome and Han

Chinese imperial model revived; Roman empire did not. This is because in China the individual is deeply embedded in the larger social group. Chinese family demands heirarcy and obedience. Confucianism further reinforced these beliefs.

Economic difference between Rome and Han

Economic and Social mobility greater in rome. Merchants respected more in rome than Han. Professional Roman army had financial and status advantages over conscripted Han army.

Religous/Political differences

Rome had to invent political tie to gods. Never questioned in china. Christianity negated this belief entirely in rome, but Bhuddism was consistent with this in Han.

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