7th grade science CH 5

Created by Tinahill 

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alleles

the different forms a gene may have for a trait

genotype

the genetic make-up of an organism

incomplete dominance

when both alleles are expressed in offspring, when neither allele for a trait is dominant

polygenic inheritance

occurs when a group of gene pairs acts together to produce a single trait, which creates more variety in phenotypes

dominant

when a trait covers up or dominates the other traits

heredity

the passing of traits from one generation to another

multiple alleles

when there are more than two alleles possible for a trait

gene therapy

when a normal allele is placed into a virus, which delivers the normal allele when it infects its target cell, may be used to control genetic disorders, like cystic fibrosis

genetic engineering

how scientists are experimenting to change the arrangement of DNA that makes up a gene

heterozygous

an organism that has two different alleles for a trait

pedigree

shows patterns of genetic inheritance in a family

recessive

in a Punnett square, a small letter(t) stands for this kind of allele, the trait seems to disappear

recombinant DNA

made by inserting a useful segment of DNA from one organism into a bacterium, ex. human insulin

homozygous

an organism with two alleles that are exactly the same

phenotype

the way an organism looks and behaves as a result of its geneotype

sex-linked gene

an allele inherited on an X or Y chromosome, such as hemophilia or color-blindness

recessive genetic disorders

when both parents have a recessive allele responsible for the disorder and pass it to their child

homo

(same) an organism whose two genotype alleles are exactly the same

hetero

(different) an organism with two different alleles for a trait

poly

(many) a type of inheritance where more than one set of genes controls a trait

Gregor Mendel

the father of genetics, first to use mathematics to explain heredity and to trace one trait for generations

hybrid

receives different genetic information for a trait from each parent

probability

helps predict the chance that something will happen

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