decrease in joint angle
increase in joint angle
away from midline of the body
toward the midline of the body
Transverse abduction (horizontal flexion)
horizontal movement away from midline
transverse adduction (horizontal extension)
horizontal movement towards midline
external rotation (outward rotation)
rotating axis of bone away from body. lateral rotation
Internal rotation (inward rotation)
rotating axis of bone towards the body. medial rotation
turn sole of foot outwards. walking on inside of foot.
turn sole of foot inwards. walking on outside of foot.
top of foot towards shin
top of foot away from shin. toe rise
turning palm upwards. hold a bowl of soup. only allowed at radioulna joint.
turning pal downwards. only allowed at radioulna joint.
proximal end of limb remains stationary, distal end moves in circular pattern.