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flexion

decrease in joint angle

extension

increase in joint angle

abduction

away from midline of the body

adduction

toward the midline of the body

Transverse abduction (horizontal flexion)

horizontal movement away from midline

transverse adduction (horizontal extension)

horizontal movement towards midline

external rotation (outward rotation)

rotating axis of bone away from body. lateral rotation

Internal rotation (inward rotation)

rotating axis of bone towards the body. medial rotation

eversion

turn sole of foot outwards. walking on inside of foot.

inversion

turn sole of foot inwards. walking on outside of foot.

dorsiflexion

top of foot towards shin

plantarflexion

top of foot away from shin. toe rise

supination

turning palm upwards. hold a bowl of soup. only allowed at radioulna joint.

pronation

turning pal downwards. only allowed at radioulna joint.

circumduction

proximal end of limb remains stationary, distal end moves in circular pattern.

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