Chapter 2 Neuron & Nervous System

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Biological Psychology

a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes

Neuron

Highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical & chemical form; a nerve cell

Sensory Neuron

Type of neuron that conveys information to the brain from specialized recialzied receptor cells in sense organs and internal organs

Motor Neurons

Type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contract

Interneuron

Type of neuron that communicates information from one neuron to the next

Cell Body

Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function

Dendrites

short fibers that branch out from the cell body and pick up incoming messages

Axon

long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron

Myelin Sheath

covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses

Action Potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

Synaptic Gap

space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the receptors of the next neuron

Axon Terminals

Branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles.

Synaptic Vesicles

Tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.

Neurotransmitters

chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another

Nervous System

Primary internal communication network of the body divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system

Central Nervous System

consists of the brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System

the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord

Sympatheic Nervous System

Branch of autonomic nervous system the produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats

Parasympathetic Nervous System

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

Autonomic Nervous System

division of the nervous system that control the glands and organs; its divisions arouse or calm

Hormones

chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream primarily by endocrine glands

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