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Fall 2011 Goudeau

Necessary Life Functions

maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth

Metablolism

all reactions under way in the cells and tissues of the body at any given moment. Regulated by endocrine system.

Catabolism

Type of metabolism - a process in which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances (e.g., breakdown of tissue) Regulated by hormones secreted by endocrine system glands.

Anabolism

Type of metabolism - synthesis of more complex substances from simpler ones

Homeostasis

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

Receptor

First component in maintaining homeostasis. Responds to stimuli by sending input to the Control Center

Control Center

Determines the set point - the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained.

Effector

Provides the means for the Control Center's response.

Afferent Pathway

information flows from the receptor along this pathway

Efferent Pathway

Pathway leaving the control center and going to the effector

Negative Feedback Mechanism

the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity.

Positive Feedback Mechanism

FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM THAT IS STIMULATORY; AMPLIFIES OR REINFORCES A CHANGE IN THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

Four Tissue Types

Eipthelium, muscle, connective tissue, and nervous tissue

Organ Defined

Structure composed of at least two tissue types with a specific function.

Cells

Smallest units of living things

Which two systems regulate Homeostasis?

Nervous through neural impulses and endocrine through hormones.

Anatomy

study of body structure

Physiology

the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms

What are the six levels of organization?

chemical-cellular-tissue-organ-organ systems-organism

What are the four major elements

CHON. "Chawn" Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen. 96%

Isotopes

atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

Atomic Number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Atomic Mass

total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units

Atomic Weight

average of the mass numbers of all isotopes

electron shells

an energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.

valence shell

The outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom.

electron orbitals

volumes of space surrounding the atomic nucleus where electrons are likely to be found.

valence electrons

The electrons in the outermost shell (main energy level) of an atom; these are the electrons involved in forming bonds.

Ion

an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge

Anion

A negatively charged atom due to the gain of one or more electrons.

Cation

an ion with a positive charge produced by the loss of one or more electrons

exergonic reaction

A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.

endergonic reaction

A reaction where the product has more potential energy than the reactants. Anabolic reactions are endergonic.

enzymes

Proteins that allow certain chemical reactions to occur much faster than they would on their own.

phospholipid

A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.

phospholipids

Modified triglycerides with a phosphorous containing group. Water loving head, water fearing tail.

Protein composition

made from amino acids (20 common types of amino acids) Long chain of amino acids joined by a peptide bond

Peptide bond

A bond that links amino acids together in a protein

Fibrous Protein

Protein that is extended and strandlike in shape. Help with structural framework (keratin, collagen.) Also help with movement by causing muscle cells to contract.

Globular Protein

spherical protein. plays crucial roles in virtually all biological processes " functional protiens" Proteins for enzymes, transport, body defense, regulation of pH, and metabolism.

Hydrolases

add water during hydrolysis reactions

Oxidases

enzymes that catalyze the transfer of oxygen

How does an enzyme speed up reactions?

Lowering the activation energy necessary for reaction

Plasma Membrane

The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.

intracellular fluid

the cytoplasm found inside cells

extracellular fluid

fluid outside the cells

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

no ribosomes are found on surface; contains collection of enzymes that perform special tasks that include the synthesis of membrane lipids and detoxification; the liver contains a lot of smooth er

Rough endoplasmic Reticulum

An endomembrane system covered with ribosomes where many proteins for transport are assembled.

cytosol

the aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended

Mitochondrion

cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use

Lysosome

filled with enzymes to breakdown dead cell parts and foreign objects; only found in animal cells

Centriole

one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope.

Peroxisome

organelle responsible for breaking down free radicals.

Golgi Apparatus

A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell. The UPS of the cell

Ribosomes

small round structures that make proteins

Nucleolus

The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus

Chromatin

the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins

Components of the Lipid Bilayer

Phosphate water-loving heads and fatty acid, water-fearing tales, cholesterol for structure, and glycolipids. Protein molecules are plugged into the outside or inside layers, or float around within.

Integral Proteins

Are firmly inserted into the bilayer. Some protrude from one side of the bilayer only, and others are transmembrane.

Function of Integral Proteins

Can act as channels through the membrane, or may act as carriers.

Peripheral Proteins

Protein appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane and not embedded in the lipid bilayer.

Functions of Membrane Proteins

1. cell to cell communication
2. transport
3. intercellular joining

Osmosis

The diffusion of a solvent, such as water, through a selectively permeable membrane. Osmosis occurs until the Osmotic Pressure and Hydrostatic Pressure equal out.

Active Transport

Transfers taking place agains the concentration gradient and requiring energy.

Passive Transport

The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy. Transfers with the flow of the concentration gradient

Diffusion

process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated

Simple diffusion

Nonpolar lipid-soluble (hydrophobic) substances diffuse directly through the phospholipid bilayer

Facilitated Diffusion

Passive transport of molecules through the membrane employing a protein channel or a carrier.

Aquaporins

Water channel proteins that allow water to pass right through them. They keep water away from the hydrophobic tails during transport

Leakage Channels

channels that are always open

Gated Channels

A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.

Osmolarity

The measure of total concentration of solute particles.
When solutions of different osmolarity are separated by a membrane, osmosis occurs until equilibrium is reached

Isotonic Solutions

Same solute/water concentration on inside and outside of cell. Water moves in and out. Cell is normal size.

Hypertonic Solutions

Higher concentration of solutes in the interstitial fluid. Pulls water from cells, causing them to shrink (crenation)

Hypotonic Solutions

Lower concentration of solutes in the interstitial fluid. Water flows into the cell causing it to swell (possibly burst.)

Tonicity

The ability of a solution to cause a cell within it to gain or lose water. Tonicity is telling us about the solute concentration of a fluid.

Hydrostatic Pressure

The force exerted on a membrane by water.

Osmotic Pressure

The tendency of water to move into the cell by osmosis

Exocytosis

process by which a cell releases large amounts of material

Endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane

Vesicular Transport

Fluids containing large particles and macromolecules are transported across cellular membranes inside membranous sacs called vesicles. (ex: exocytosis and endocytosis.)

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