Bone Tissue, Function and Structure: Test 2
|What is bone?|| Connective tissue: Matrix, |
1. Ground Substance - empty space
1. Osteoblast-"build bone"
2. Ostechst- " degrades bone
3 Osteocyte- mature bone ( osteoblast)
|Functions of Bone||Structural support- posture; shape , 206 bones|
Muscle attachment- muscle attach to bone by the way of tentons- muscle contract - movement.
Mineral Storage- Caluim + phosphate : hydroxyapatite, magnesium...
Fat storage- inside / marrow cavities
Hematopoiesis- blood formation makes erythrocytes
|Composition of Bone|| Organic Collagen Fibers- flexible- organic |
heat (degrade the organic)- fragile
Acid- eats away at the organic salts- flexible
|The Matrix: Organic matter|| Synthesized by osteoblasts|
-Collagen, carbohydrate- protein complexes, such as glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins
|The matrix: Inorganic matter|| 85% hydroxyapatite ( crystallized calcium phosphate salt)|
-10% calcium carbonate and other minerals ( fluoride, sodium, potassium, magnesium)
|How is bone a composite material?||combination of two basic structural materials, a ceramic and a polymer.|
|Bone combines?||the polymer, collagen, with the ceramic; hydroxyapatite and other minerals|
|Ceramic portion allows the bone to?||Support the body weight, and protein portion gives bone some degree of flexibility|
|Bone Cells|| Osteogenic cell ( develops into an osteoblast)|
- Osteblast ( forms bone matrix)
- Osteocyte ( maintains bone tissue)
Osteoclast (functions in resorption, the breakdown of bone matrix) muti nucli, ruffled border preduces: acid, that will break down your bones.
|Osteblast||bone building cell, decrease blood calcium levels|
|Osteoclast||cells that break down bone, increase the blood calcium levels, muli-nucli|
|Types of bone: Compact bone||outside, dense, Periphery, Osteon- functional unit of bone ( one little tree)|
|Types of bones: Spongy bones||looks like a sponge, spaces, trabeculae, on the inside|
|Compact Bone||Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone|
The unit of combact bone, also called a Haversian system. Osteons are essentially long cylinders of bone; the hollow center is called the central canal, and is where blood vessels, nervs, and lymphatic vessels are found. Compact bone is laid down around the central canal in rings (lamellae).
|Periosteum||thin membrane that covers a bone|
|The osteon/ lable|
|Osteoid||Newly formed organic bone matrix before the addition of inorganic calcium salts.|
|Nurient Foramen||hold where bone recieves nurients|
|Volkmans Canal||allow the blood vessels to connect with the bone.|
|Interstitial Lamellae||fills the spaces between osteosn.|
|Circumferential Lamellae||lamellae wrapped around the long bone; bind osteons together, outside|
|Concentric Lamelle||concentric rings of bone that surround the central canal, inside|
|Spongy Bone|| |
Layer of Bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone
|Endosteum||inner membrane layer of the bone|
|Long Bones||bones that are longer than they are wide, Humerous, Radius, Ulna, Femur, Fibula and Tibia. Rigid levers acted upon by muscles. appendage|
|Short bones||Equal in lenght and width, glide across one another on multiple directions, Carpal, Tarsal|
|Flat bones||Blood production, protect soft organs, curved but wide and thin. ex: scapula, sternum, ribs.|
|Irregular bones||elaborate shapes that don't fit into the other categories, ex: vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, os coxa, ethmoid, sphenoid|
|Sesamoid bone||any of several small round bones formed in a tendon where it passes over a joint, patella|
|Wormian bones / sutural||small bones found between suture lines of the skull where the edges of the skull bones are joined together ( rare)|
|Struture of a Flat Bone|| Sandwich- like construction,|
two layers of compact bone enclosing a middle layer of spongy bone,
both surface of flat bone covered with periosteum
Diploe- Spongy layer in the cranium
-Marrow spaces lined with endosteum.
|Bone Marrow||General term for soft tissues the occupies the marrow cavity of the long bone and small spaces amid the trabeculae of spongy bone|
|Red Marrow ( myeloid tiussue)|| In nearly every bone in a child|
Hemopoietic tissue - produces blood cells and is composed of multiple tissues in a delicate, but intricate arrangement that is an organ to itself
In adults, found in skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, part of pelvic girdle, and proximal heads of humerus and femur
|Yellow Marrow ( found in adults)|| Most red marrow turns into fatty yellow marrow|
No longer produces blood
|Nondisplaced fractures||fracture that retains the normal alignment of the bones or fragments|
|Comminuted||bone breaks into many fragments|
|Greenstick||Bone breaks incompletely|
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