What is bone?
Connective tissue: Matrix,
1. Ground Substance - empty space
1. Osteoblast-"build bone"
2. Ostechst- " degrades bone
3 Osteocyte- mature bone ( osteoblast)
Functions of Bone
Structural support- posture; shape , 206 bones
Muscle attachment- muscle attach to bone by the way of tentons- muscle contract - movement.
Mineral Storage- Caluim + phosphate : hydroxyapatite, magnesium...
Fat storage- inside / marrow cavities
Hematopoiesis- blood formation makes erythrocytes
Composition of Bone
Organic Collagen Fibers- flexible- organic
heat (degrade the organic)- fragile
Acid- eats away at the organic salts- flexible
The Matrix: Organic matter
Synthesized by osteoblasts
-Collagen, carbohydrate- protein complexes, such as glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins
The matrix: Inorganic matter
85% hydroxyapatite ( crystallized calcium phosphate salt)
-10% calcium carbonate and other minerals ( fluoride, sodium, potassium, magnesium)
How is bone a composite material?
combination of two basic structural materials, a ceramic and a polymer.
the polymer, collagen, with the ceramic; hydroxyapatite and other minerals
Ceramic portion allows the bone to?
Support the body weight, and protein portion gives bone some degree of flexibility
Osteogenic cell ( develops into an osteoblast)
- Osteblast ( forms bone matrix)
- Osteocyte ( maintains bone tissue)
Osteoclast (functions in resorption, the breakdown of bone matrix) muti nucli, ruffled border preduces: acid, that will break down your bones.
bone building cell, decrease blood calcium levels
cells that break down bone, increase the blood calcium levels, muli-nucli
Types of bone: Compact bone
outside, dense, Periphery, Osteon- functional unit of bone ( one little tree)
Types of bones: Spongy bones
looks like a sponge, spaces, trabeculae, on the inside
Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone
The unit of combact bone, also called a Haversian system. Osteons are essentially long cylinders of bone; the hollow center is called the central canal, and is where blood vessels, nervs, and lymphatic vessels are found. Compact bone is laid down around the central canal in rings (lamellae).
thin membrane that covers a bone
The osteon/ lable
Newly formed organic bone matrix before the addition of inorganic calcium salts.
hold where bone recieves nurients
allow the blood vessels to connect with the bone.
fills the spaces between osteosn.
lamellae wrapped around the long bone; bind osteons together, outside
concentric rings of bone that surround the central canal, inside
Layer of Bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone
inner membrane layer of the bone
bones that are longer than they are wide, Humerous, Radius, Ulna, Femur, Fibula and Tibia. Rigid levers acted upon by muscles. appendage
Equal in lenght and width, glide across one another on multiple directions, Carpal, Tarsal
Blood production, protect soft organs, curved but wide and thin. ex: scapula, sternum, ribs.
elaborate shapes that don't fit into the other categories, ex: vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, os coxa, ethmoid, sphenoid
any of several small round bones formed in a tendon where it passes over a joint, patella
Wormian bones / sutural
small bones found between suture lines of the skull where the edges of the skull bones are joined together ( rare)
Struture of a Flat Bone
Sandwich- like construction,
two layers of compact bone enclosing a middle layer of spongy bone,
both surface of flat bone covered with periosteum
Diploe- Spongy layer in the cranium
-Marrow spaces lined with endosteum.
General term for soft tissues the occupies the marrow cavity of the long bone and small spaces amid the trabeculae of spongy bone
Red Marrow ( myeloid tiussue)
In nearly every bone in a child
Hemopoietic tissue - produces blood cells and is composed of multiple tissues in a delicate, but intricate arrangement that is an organ to itself
In adults, found in skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, part of pelvic girdle, and proximal heads of humerus and femur
Yellow Marrow ( found in adults)
Most red marrow turns into fatty yellow marrow
No longer produces blood
fracture that retains the normal alignment of the bones or fragments
bone breaks into many fragments
Bone breaks incompletely