The primary source of oxygen for the Earth's atmosphere during the past half billion years or so appears to be:
If you are standing north of a smoke stack and smoke from the stack id drifting over your head, the wind direction would be:
The largest storm in our atmosphere, in terms of actual size (diameter) is the ______
Middle latitude cyclonic storm
In the Northern Hemisphere, surface winds tend to blow this way around an area of surface low pressure.
Counterclockwise and inward
The well-mixed region of the Earth's atmosphere is known as the_____. It is comprised of the Troposphere, Stratosphere, and the Mesosphere.
Which of the following statements relates to weather rather than climate?
a. The winters here are cold and wet.
b. Outside it is sunny and hot.
c. Thunderstorms are prevalent during July.
d. Our lowest temperature ever was -30ºC
e. The average temperature during March is 20ºC
b. Outside it is sunny and hot.
The gas that shows the most variation from place to place and from time to time in the lower atmosphere is _________
Water Vapor (H20)
What percent does each of the following gases occupy in a volume of air near the earth's surface?
Water Vapor ______%
Carbon Dioxide ______%
Most of the ozone in the atmosphere is found in the atmospheric layer called the _______
Most of the Earth's water is believed to have originally come from ______ _______
Outgassing/ Small meteors
The only substance near the Earth's surface that is found naturally in the atmosphere as a solid, a liquid, and a gas is _______
The instrument that measures temperature, pressure, and humidity at levels above the Earth's surface is the ______
At sea level, the average or standard value of atmospheric pressure is ____millibars and ____inches of mercury.
The atmospheric boundary that separates the troposphere from the stratosphere is the ______
The average decrease in air temperature with increasing height in the lower atmosphere is about ___ºC per 1000 meters, or ____ºF per 1000 feet.
The region of circulating air extending upward from the earth's surface to where the air stops becoming colder with height.
Refer to the image of the layers of the atmosphere and name the missing areas:
The region where atoms and molecules shoot off into space is sometimes referred to as the ______
The region from about the base of the thermosphere to the top of the atmosphere is often called the ______. 90km and upwards
An electrified region within the upper atmosphere where fairly large concentration of ions and free electrons exist.
The two most significant atmospheric greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere are _____ and _____
The earth emits maximum radiation in the _____ portion of the spectrum, while the sun emits maximum radiation at _____ wavelengths
If the present concentration of C02 doubles, climatic models predict that for the earth's average temperature to rise bu as much as 4.5C, the gas _____ _____ must also increase in concentration.
The wavelength range where neither water vapor nor carbon dioxide absorbs much of the earth's infrared radiation is known as the atmospheric _____
The temperature at which the earth is both absorbing solar radiation and emitting infrared radiation at equal rates is called the Earth's _____ _____ _____
radiative equilibrium temperature
Sunlight deflected in all direction after striking very small objects is said to be ______
The rate at which radiant energy is emitted by a body ____ with _____ temperature
If the earth had no atmospheric greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature would be _____ than at present
If the earth's average surface temperature should increase, the amount of radiation emitted from the earth's surface will _____, and the wavelength of maximum emission will shift toward _____ wavelengths
The earth's atmospheric greenhouse effect is produced mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide absorbing and emitting ______ _______
What does the ____% albedo number mean?
It means that X% of the sunlight that strikes an object is reflected
Clear, calm nights are usually cooler than cloudy, calm nights because....?
Clouds absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation back to the earth's surface
The law that states that good absorbers of radiation are good emitters of radiation at a particular wavelength:
Substances such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, clouds, and snow that absorb radiation only at particular wavelengths
On average, about ____ percent of the solar radiation that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth's surface.
T/F On averages, each year the earth-atmosphere system sends off into space just as much energy as it receives.
T/F An increase in cloud cover around the earth would probably increase the albedo of the earth-atmosphere system.
The ratio of heat absorbed (or released) by the unit mass of the system to the corresponding temperature rise (or fall).
T/F The process of condensation, freezing, and deposition all release sensible heat into the environment.
Convert 212°F to °C
Convert 140°F to °C
Convert 86°F to °C
Convert 50°F to °C
Convert 32°F to °C
Convert -4°F to °C
T/F In direct sunlight, a object with a high albedo appears darker than on object with a low albedo.
T/F The earth's radiative equilibrium temperature is lower than the earth's observed average surface temperature.
By doubling the absolute temperature of the sun's surface, the sun's energy output would increase by a factor of ____
At this temperature, the atoms and molecules would possess a minimum amount of energy and theoretically no thermal motion.
The heat energy required to change a substance, such as water, from one state to another.
The process by which the ground and air above cool by radiating infrared energy.
The main factors that cause variations in temperature from one place to another.
Controls of temperature
Farmers use an index called _____ _____ _____ as a guide to planting and for determining the approximate dates when a crop will be ready for harvesting.
The sensation of temperature that the human body feels in contrast to the actual temperature of the environment as measured with a thermometer.
The rapid loss of body heat may lower the body temperature below its normal level and bring on a condition know as ______.
Measured increase in air temperature just above the ground. Occurs on clear, calm nights. Winter nights provide the best conditions.
Radiation inversion / nocturnal inversion
In middle latitudes, these warmer hillsides called _____ _____, are less likely to experience freezing temperatures than the valley below.
Main factors that cause variations in temperature from one place to another.
Controls of temperature
Two factors which determine the amount of solar radiation. (both are functions of latitude)
Length of day, intensity
The average of the highest and lowest temperature for a 24-hour period i s know as the _____ (average) daily temperature.
The difference between the average temperature of the warmest and coldest months.
annual range of temperature
Often used for measuring surface air temperature because they are easy to read and inexpensive to construct.
During the summer solstice, solar energy incident on the earth's surface is maximum near this latitude:
30 degrees North
When is the highest average temperature attained?
When the incoming solar radiation and the outgoing infrared energy are in balance.
Why does the coldest weather occur in January or February?
Outgoing earth energy exceeds incoming solar radiation
Cycle of moving and transforming water molecules from liquid to water vapor and back to liquid again
Total pressure inside the parcel is equal to the sum of the pressures of the individual gasses
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Tells us the mass of water vapor in a fixed volume of air, or the water vapor density
Expresses the amount of water vapor in terms of the amount of pressure that the water vapor molecules exert
Actual vapor pressure
Pressure that the water vapor molecules would exert if the air were saturated with vapor at a given temperature
Saturation vapor pressure
The ratio of the amount of water vapor actually in the air to the maximum amount of water vapor required for saturation at that particular temperature (and pressure);
the ratio of the air's water vapor content to its capacity
relative humidity (RH)
Polar air has a ____ RH than desert air. "Dry" desert air has a ____ dew-point, contains more water vapor than polar air.
A photon of UV "light" hits an oxygen molecule. The energy from the photon breaks the molecule apart into two separate oxygen atoms. This process is called:
Carbon monoxide, photochemical smog, industrial smog and sulfur oxides, particulates
One ___ Unit is the number of molecules of ozone that would be required to create a layer of pure ozone 0.01 mm thick at 0 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 1 atm.