fastest growing age group is expected to be workers 55 and older in 2010 about half of the worker will be older than 40 and headed towards retirement
2016 workforce expected to be 80% white 12% black 8% Asian and other. Hispanics growing fast, more women in the workforce than in the past
today employers are looking for: mathematical skills, verbal skills, interpersonal skills, and computer skills—looking for skills with computer and how to use the internet
employees whose contribution to the organization is specialized knowledge such as:
Knowledge of customers
Knowledge of a process
Knowledge of a profession
Especially needed for the jobs in health services, business services, social services, engineering, and management
increase in service oriented jobs—require knowledge workers
giving employees responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding all aspects of product development or customer service
the assignment of work to groups of employees with various skills who interact to assemble a product or provide a service—work teams often assume many of the activities traditionally reserved for managers:
Selecting new team members
Coordinating work with customers and other units of the organization
TQM—(Total Quality Management)
a company wide effort to continuously improve the ways people. Machines and systems accomplish work
merger is two companies becoming one and acquisitions is one company buying another—training efforts should therefore include development of skills in conflict resolution, also HR have to sort out differences in the 2 companies practices with regard to compensation, performance appraisal and other HR systems.
Why does a company pursue layoffs?—
restructuring, cut costs, outsourcing, company pull back
Who is laid off?—
one hired is 1st one gone, lowest performing
a complete review of the organization's critical work processes to make them more efficient and be able to deliver higher quality—involves reviewing all the processes performed by all the organizations major functions—affects HRM in 2 ways:
The way the HR dept. itself accomplishes its goals may change dramatically.
The fundamental change throughout the organization requires the HR dept. to help design and implement change so that all employees will be committed to the success of the reengineered organization
o Often results in employees being laid off or reassigned to new jobs as the organizations need change. HR should also help with this transition as they do for downsizing.
the practice of having another company (a vendor, 3rd party provider, or consultant) provide services—outsourcing gives the company access to indepth expertise and is often more economical. -helps company focus on its core.
What can be outsourced?—call centers
moving operations from the country where a company is headquartered to a country where pay rates are lower but the necessary skills are available—moving the entire company—might be bad bc you might lose control by contracting with another company—
Con—language barrier, service quality
o international assignments/expatriates—expatriates
people who take assignments in other countries
o HRIS system (Human Resource Information System)—
a computer system used to acquire, store, manipulate, analyze, retrieve, and distribute information related to an organization's HR. it can:
Support strategic decision making
Help the organization avoid lawsuits
Provide data for evaluating programs or policies
Support day to day HR decisions
the processing and transmission of digitized HR information especially using computer networking and the internet—has the potential to change all traditional HRM functions
o Psychological contract
a description of what an employee expects to contribute in an employment relationship and what the employer will provide the employee in exchange for those contributions—it is unspoken
Outsourcing, temporary, and contract workers
Flexible work schedules—including shortened work weeks
Allowing employees to adjust work hours to meet personal and family needs
Moving employees to different jobs to meet changes in demand
o Legislative branch
2 houses of congress has enacted a number of laws governing hr activites—they are developed in response to perceived societal needs
o Executive branch
responsible for enforcing the laws passed by congress—includes equal employment opportunity commission and the occupational safety and health admin.
o Judicial branch
federal court system influences employment law be interpreting the law and holding trials concerning violations of the law
o 13th amendment
o 14th amendment
provides equal protection for all citizens and requires due process in state action
o Civil rights act of 1866
granted all persons the same property rights as white citizens as well as the right to enter into and enforce contracts
o Civil rights act of 1871
granted all citizens the right to sue in federal court if deprived of a civil right
o Equal pay act of 1963
if men and women in an organization are EQUAL work the employer must pay them equally. Equal = skill, effort, responsibility and working conditions
o Vocational Rehabilitation Act 1973
enhance employment opportunity for individuals w disabilities—encourage employers to recruit and make reasonable accommodations
o Title VII
prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals bc of their
o ADA (Americans with disabilities act)—
protects individuals w disabilities from being discriminated against in workplace conditions NOT covered:
o ADEA (Age Discrimination in Employment Act)—
prohibits discrimination against workers who are over the age of 40—outlaws hiring,firing,setting compensation rates. Etc. based on age over 40.
—(Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)—investigates and resolves complaints about discrimination—gathers information and issues guidelines
o EEOC Types of charges filed are
Equal pay act
o OFCCP (Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs)—
responsible for enforcing the executive orders that cover companies doing business with the federal government
o Disparate treatment
different treatment of individuals based on the individual's race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age or disability status
o BFOQ (Bona Fide Occupational Qualification
-a necessary qualification for performing a job—the supreme court has ruled that BFOQ's are limited to policies directly related to a worker's ability to do the job
o Disparate impact
a condition in which employment practices are seemingly neutral yet disproportionately exclude a protected group from employment opportunities
o 4/5's rule
rule of thumb that finds evidence of discrimination if an organization's hiring rate for a minority group is less than 4/5's the hiring rate for the majority group
• Reasonable accommodation
an employer's obligation to do something to enable an otherwise qualified person to perform a job.
o Sexual harassment
unwelcome sexual advances as defined by the EEOC
o Quid pro quo
that a person makes a benefit (or punishment) contingent on an employee's submitting to (or rejecting) sexual advances.
o Hostile work environment
someone's behavior in a workplace creates an environment in which it is difficult for someone of a particular sex to work.
o OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act)—
responsible for inspecting employers, applying safety and health standards, and levying fines for violation
o OSHA—employer's duties
have a general duty to provide employees a place of employment free from recognized safety and health hazards—employers must keep records of work related injuries and illnesses—must post an annual summary of these records
o Work flow design
the process of analyzing tasks necessary for the production of a product or service
the set of duties (job) performed by a particular person
a set of related duties
o Job analysis
the process of getting detailed information about jobs. Job descriptions and job specifications
o Sources of information:
The incumbents-the people who currently hold the position in the organization
Dictionary of occupational titles-published by the US dept of labor
Occupational Information Network (O*Net) an online job description database developed by the Labor Dept.
o Job description
a list of tasks duties and responsibilities (TDR's) that a particular job entails Key components are:
Brief description of the TDR's
List of the essential duties with detailed specifications of the tasks involved in carrying out each duty.
o Job specification
a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAO's) that an individual must have to perform a particular job
Knowledge-factual or procedural information necessary for successfully performing a task.
Skill-an individual's level of proficiency at performing a particular task
Ability-a more general enduring capability that an individual possesses
Other-job-related licensing, certifications, or personality traits
o Job design
the process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job
o Job redesign
a similar process that involves changing an existing job design.
To design jobs effectively, a person must thoroughly understand:
• The job itself (through job analysis)
• Its place in the units work flow (work flow analysis)
job enlargement, job enrichment,teamwork,flexibility
industrial engineering—the study of jobs to find the simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiency.
o Transition matrix
a chart that lists job categories held in one period and show the proportion of employees in each of those job categories in a future period. It answers 2 questions:
Where did people in each job category go?
Where did people in each job category come from?
o Trend analysis
constructing and applying statistical models that predict labor demand for the next year, given relatively objective statistics from the previous year
attempts to determine the supply and demand for various types of HR to predict areas within the organization where there will be labor shortages or surpluses. Three major steps to forecasting are:
Forecasting the demand for labor
Determining labor supply
Determining labor surplus or shortage
the purpose of setting specific numerical goals is to focus attention on the problem and provide a basis for measuring the organizations success in addressing labor shortages ans surpluses. The goals should come directly from the analysis of supply and demand. For each goal the org. must choose one or more HR strategies.
the org. must hold some individual accountable for achieving the goals. That person must also have the authority and resources needed to accomplish those goals. Regular progress reports should be issued.
• Workforce utilization review
a comparison of employees in protectd groups with the proportion that each group represents in the relevant labor market. The steps in a workforce utilization review are identical to the steps in the HR planning process.
Generates applicants who are wel known to the org.
These applicants are relatively knowledgeable about the org's vacancies, which minimizes the possibility of unrealistic job expectations.
Generally cheaper and faster
o Lead the market
pay more thant the current market wages for a job. Higher pay can make up the jobs less desirable features such as working on a night shift or in dangerous conditions. May use bonuses, stock options, and other forms of pay besides wages and salaries
o Employment at will
employment principle that if thre is no specific employment contract saying otherwise, the employer or employee may end an employment relationship at any time regardless of cause.
o Image advertising
advertising designed to create a generally favorable impression of the org. important for highly competitive labor markets that perceive themselves as having a bad image.
o Yield ratios
a ratio that expresses the % of applicants who successfully move from one stage of the recruitment and selection process to the next. By doing this we can determine which source is the bst or most efficient for the type of vacancy.
o Cost per hire
to find it using a particular recruitment source for a particualr type of vacancy. Divide that cost by the number of ppl hired to fill that type of vacancy. a low one means that the recruitment source is efficient.
• Recruiter traits and behaviors
o Should provide timely feedback.
o Should avoid offensive behavior.
o Should avoid behaving in ways that might convey the wrong impression about the org.
o The org. can recruit with teams rather than individual recruiters.