Human Body Systems Vocabulary

50 terms by hawthornests5 

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nervous system

The human body system that controls the body's reactions to the outside world. It is the system that controls the actions, emotions, thoughts, memories, sensations, and senses.

stimuli

Events or conditions that cause a living thing to react.

neurons

Another word for nerve cells which carry messages throughout the body.

cell body

The main part of a neuron.

dendrites

The short strands branching out from the cell body of a neuron.

axon

The single, long strand that comes out of the other side of the cell body.

synapse

The gap between two neurons.

brain

The main control center of the nervous system.

cerebrum

The part of the brain responsible for learning, reasoning, memory, and the senses.

cerebellum

The part of the brain responsible for smooth, coordinated movement.

brain stem

The part of the brain responsible for controlling vital functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure.

skeletal system

The human body system that supports the body and gives it shape, protects internal organs, and makes new blood.

bones

Give the basic shape to the body. An adult has 206 of them.

joint

The place where two or more bones meet.

ligaments

Strong bands of connective tissue that holds the bones in a joint together.

marrow

The soft tissue in the middle of a bone which produces new blood cells.

fracture

A break in a bone.

muscular system

The human body system that causes movement of the body parts and also helps with digestion and circulation.

voluntary muscles

Muscles that you can control consciously.

involuntary muscles

Muscles that automatically do their jobs without you needing to think about it.

tendons

Tough bands of connective tissue that connects the muscles to the bones.

circulatory system

The human body system that transports oxygen and nutrients to the body, takes carbon dioxide back to the lungs, and fights infections with white blood cells.

heart

The organ that pumps blood throughout the body.

plasma

One part of the blood which is mostly water and makes up half the blood.

arteries

The blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart.

capillaries

The smallest vessels that connect the arteries and the veins.

veins

The blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.

atrium

The two upper chambers of the heart.

ventricle

The two lower chambers of the heart.

aorta

The main transporter of blood and the largest artery.

respiratory system

The human body system that provides oxygen through breathing.

nose

Where air is inhaled, filtered, warmed and moistened.

epiglottis

The flap of tissue that prevents food from entering the windpipe.

trachea

The windpipe.

alveoli

The tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchi in the lungs.

diaphragm

The dome-shaped muscle found under the rib cage which is important for breathing.

digestive system

The human body system that breaks down food to be used throughout the body.

salivary glands

The place where saliva is stored and then secreted into the mouth.

saliva

The secretion from the salivary glands.

tongue

The muscle that helps push food to the back of the mouth where it is swallowed.

esophagus

The muscular tube food passes through to get to the stomach.

peristalsis

The muscular action which helps move food through the esophagus and through the rest of the digestive system.

stomach

A j-shaped sac that stores and further digests food.

small intestines

A very long, coiled, tube-like organ that absorbs the nutrients from food.

liver

Produces bile.

gallbladder

A storage sac that holds the bile produced by the liver.

pancreas

Produces pancreatic juices used in digestion.

villi

Tiny finger-like structures that line the inner wall of the small intestine.

large intestine

A tube-like organ that absorbs water from food.

rectum

The place where solid waste is stored.

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