Psychology Cliff's Notes

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Learning

Relatively permanent behavioral change that occurs as the result of the experience.

What factors are required for learning to occur?

Procedures and elements needed to produce learning.

Temp changes in responsiveness to stimulus variations isn't learning; it includes what two things?

Sensitization & Habituated

Sensitization

The magnitude of responses to stimuli increases after repeated stimulus exposures

Habituated

One may become used to a repeated stimulus

What are the 4 types of permanent changes in behavior as a result of experience

1) Classical Conditioning
2) Operant Conditioning
3) Contingency Learning
4) Cognitive Learning

Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning

4-step learning procedure involving reflexes

Classical conditioning requires the existence of__________________

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) elicits an unconditioned response (UCR), (an unlearned response - aka 'reflexes')

The UCR is a physiological response that can reliably be elicited from a

UCS
Salivation (the UCR) in response to the smell or sight of food (the UCS)

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

A stimulus of which the subject can be made aware but which initially does not cause the UCR

What follows the CS

A conditioned response, the same response as the UCR, but eventually in reaction to a different stimulus

Classical conditioning uses four______and four _____.

1) Components
2) Steps

Process of Classical Conditioning

After a sufficient number of presentations of the CS followed by the UCS, the experimenter presents the CS without the UCS. If a response, an eye blink, occurs, the UCR is now called a conditioned response (CR). The eye blink response to the buzzer has been conditioned (learned).

Is higher order conditioning based upon previous learning?

yes, what was the CS comes to serve as a UCS.

Term used to describe the process of learning a conditioned response

acquisition

unlearning is also known as what?

Extinction

What will happen if the CS is presented for a time w/o the UCS

Extinguished

If the CS is presented later, the CR temporarily returns in a process called...

spontaneous recovery

Who introduced Operant Conditioning (OC)?
Who is best known for OC

Edward Thorndike - response is 'instrumental' in obtaining the reward
B.F. Skinner

What's the operant box known as?

The Skinner box

Explain Thorndike's Law of Effect

1911-suggests that responses are learned when they are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs."

Can CC, such as CS be used with OC?

Yes, but it requires the use of shaping and reinforcement procedures.

OC - what must first happen for shaping to occur?

The subject must emit the response the experimenter plans to reward

Definition of shaping

it's the name given to those initial steps needed to get the subject to engage in the behavior that is to be rewarded

Positive reinforcement is used for....

The presentation of a rewarding stimulus (something that the subj wants) is a 'positive reinforcer' It increases the probability that a particular response will occur.

Negative reinforcement is used for...

The presentation of an unpleasant stimulus (the subj doesn't want) is a 'negative reinforcer'. It increases the likelihood of removing/avoiding a neg reinforcer, will occur. [Spanking]

How does punishment differ from negative reinforcement?

decreases the probability that a particular preceding event will occur by experiencing the unpleasant (aversive) stimulus rather than avoid it.again

Continuous reinforcement

Reinforcement can occur after every response

Intermittent reinforcement.

Occurs only after some responses; more resistant to extinction ('partial reinforcement effect')

4 types of intermittent reinforcement effects as a reward after responses

Schedules of reinforcement, include:
1) Fixed-ratio schedule
2) Variable -ratio schedule
3) Fixed-interval schedule
4) Variable-interval schedule

Explain 4 schedules of reinforcement

FR - after set # of responses
VR - variable # of responses
FI - after same (fixed) amount of time
VI - variable interval of time has passed

Reinforcers can be classified as 4 different things in two different categories

1) Positive & Negative
2) Primary & Secondary

What is a primary reinforcer

Food, water, or situation that's universally rewarding or punishing

What's a secondary reinforcer

Formerly neutral stim that has acquired reward or punishment value. (F on test)

What's extinction

The cessation of a particular response when a response no longer results in reinforcement

What's one way to measure the strength of the learning

Response strength

How many unreinforced trials must occur before extinction takes place

Resistance to extinction

The application of some of the principles of classical and operant conditioning to changing behavior is called

Behavior modification

Contingency theorists believe in what?

There are types of learning exist that are not explained by operant and classical conditioning

Contingency theory

for learning to take place, a stimulus must provide the subject information about the likelihood that certain events will occur

What did Robert Rescorla do with contingency?

Demonstrated that the pairing of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not always produce learning and contended that it is necessary for the CS to signify a contingency.

What did Robert Rescorla do with Learned Helplessness?

no perceived connection (contingency) exists between a response and a reinforcer, meaning responses and outcomes are unrelated

What happens when subjects' behavior has no effect upon reward

The result is apathy or unresponsiveness; they simply give up and no longer try.

What did Martin Seligman do?

demonstrated that if individuals (both animal and human) believe they have no control in a situation, they exhibit learned helplessness, doing nothing and not trying to solve problems

Cognitive learning involves learning a relationship between two stimuli and is also called....

S-S learning.
Types of cognitive learning include:
1) Latent learning
2) Formation of insights.

Social learning theory

proponents believe that much of our learning occurs through watching, often in social situations, what happens to other people.

What are the two other names observational learning goes by?

1) Modeling
2) vicarious learning

Who was responsible for observational learning?

Albert Bandura

It is important to distinguish between learning (including conditioning) and performance.

The phenomena of cognitive maps and of latent learning both demonstrate that something may be learned but not shown until later.

Factors that influence learning.

1) Amount of practice
2) Amount of reward
3) Delay of reward
4) Partial reinforcement
5) Interstimulus time

Factors that influence performance

1) Motivation
2) Stimulus intensity
3) Effort

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