What factors are required for learning to occur?
Procedures and elements needed to produce learning.
Temp changes in responsiveness to stimulus variations isn't learning; it includes what two things?
Sensitization & Habituated
What are the 4 types of permanent changes in behavior as a result of experience
1) Classical Conditioning
2) Operant Conditioning
3) Contingency Learning
4) Cognitive Learning
Classical conditioning requires the existence of__________________
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) elicits an unconditioned response (UCR), (an unlearned response - aka 'reflexes')
The UCR is a physiological response that can reliably be elicited from a
Salivation (the UCR) in response to the smell or sight of food (the UCS)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
A stimulus of which the subject can be made aware but which initially does not cause the UCR
What follows the CS
A conditioned response, the same response as the UCR, but eventually in reaction to a different stimulus
Process of Classical Conditioning
After a sufficient number of presentations of the CS followed by the UCS, the experimenter presents the CS without the UCS. If a response, an eye blink, occurs, the UCR is now called a conditioned response (CR). The eye blink response to the buzzer has been conditioned (learned).
Is higher order conditioning based upon previous learning?
yes, what was the CS comes to serve as a UCS.
If the CS is presented later, the CR temporarily returns in a process called...
Who introduced Operant Conditioning (OC)?
Who is best known for OC
Edward Thorndike - response is 'instrumental' in obtaining the reward
Explain Thorndike's Law of Effect
1911-suggests that responses are learned when they are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs."
Can CC, such as CS be used with OC?
Yes, but it requires the use of shaping and reinforcement procedures.
OC - what must first happen for shaping to occur?
The subject must emit the response the experimenter plans to reward
Definition of shaping
it's the name given to those initial steps needed to get the subject to engage in the behavior that is to be rewarded
Positive reinforcement is used for....
The presentation of a rewarding stimulus (something that the subj wants) is a 'positive reinforcer' It increases the probability that a particular response will occur.
Negative reinforcement is used for...
The presentation of an unpleasant stimulus (the subj doesn't want) is a 'negative reinforcer'. It increases the likelihood of removing/avoiding a neg reinforcer, will occur. [Spanking]
How does punishment differ from negative reinforcement?
decreases the probability that a particular preceding event will occur by experiencing the unpleasant (aversive) stimulus rather than avoid it.again
Occurs only after some responses; more resistant to extinction ('partial reinforcement effect')
4 types of intermittent reinforcement effects as a reward after responses
Schedules of reinforcement, include:
1) Fixed-ratio schedule
2) Variable -ratio schedule
3) Fixed-interval schedule
4) Variable-interval schedule
Explain 4 schedules of reinforcement
FR - after set # of responses
VR - variable # of responses
FI - after same (fixed) amount of time
VI - variable interval of time has passed
Reinforcers can be classified as 4 different things in two different categories
1) Positive & Negative
2) Primary & Secondary
What's a secondary reinforcer
Formerly neutral stim that has acquired reward or punishment value. (F on test)
The cessation of a particular response when a response no longer results in reinforcement
The application of some of the principles of classical and operant conditioning to changing behavior is called
Contingency theorists believe in what?
There are types of learning exist that are not explained by operant and classical conditioning
for learning to take place, a stimulus must provide the subject information about the likelihood that certain events will occur
What did Robert Rescorla do with contingency?
Demonstrated that the pairing of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not always produce learning and contended that it is necessary for the CS to signify a contingency.
What did Robert Rescorla do with Learned Helplessness?
no perceived connection (contingency) exists between a response and a reinforcer, meaning responses and outcomes are unrelated
What happens when subjects' behavior has no effect upon reward
The result is apathy or unresponsiveness; they simply give up and no longer try.
What did Martin Seligman do?
demonstrated that if individuals (both animal and human) believe they have no control in a situation, they exhibit learned helplessness, doing nothing and not trying to solve problems
Cognitive learning involves learning a relationship between two stimuli and is also called....
Types of cognitive learning include:
1) Latent learning
2) Formation of insights.
Social learning theory
proponents believe that much of our learning occurs through watching, often in social situations, what happens to other people.
It is important to distinguish between learning (including conditioning) and performance.
The phenomena of cognitive maps and of latent learning both demonstrate that something may be learned but not shown until later.
Factors that influence learning.
1) Amount of practice
2) Amount of reward
3) Delay of reward
4) Partial reinforcement
5) Interstimulus time