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When Second Continental congress met in 1775

There was no well-defined sentiment for independence

Perhaps the most important Single Action of the Second Continental Congress Was

To select George Washington to head the army

Put in order:

a.) Publication of Common Sense
b.) Fighting at Lexington and Concord
c.) Adoption of the Declaration of Independence
d.) Convening of the Second Continental Congress


George Washing to exhibited all of the following as the commander of America's Revolutionary army:

Courage, a sense of justice, moral force, and patience

The Revolution began with fighting in ______; the in 1777-1778, Fighting was concentrated in the ________ colonies, and the fighting concluded in the _______ colonies

New England, Middle, and Southern

George Washington's Selection to lead the colonial army was

largely political

Why did the colonial army eventually Lose the Battle of Bunker Hill?

They were short on Gun powder

When did King George III Officially declared The Colonies in rebellion?

after the Battle of Bunker Hill

Olive Branch Petition

attempt by the continental congress to reconcile with Britain professing American loyalty

What Caused the Declaration of Independence?

When the king rejected the Olive Branch Petition

American invasion of Canada

-contradicted The American claim that they were merely fighting defensively.

The colonists delayed declaring their independence until July 4, 1776 because

1.) Support for the tradition of loyalty to the empire
2.) The Realization that the Colonies were not united
3.) Fear of British military retaliation
4.) Belief that america was part of the transatlantic community

One purpose of the Declaration

explain to the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted


Power comes from the people themselves by way of representatives.

Common Sense

-Written by Thomas Paine
-Called for:
- American independence
- and creation of a democratic republic

Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee

introduced the resolution of, "These united colonies, and of right ought to be, free and independent states...", into the Second Continental Congress.

What are some examples of Colonial experience with self-governance, which prepared americans for a republic?

a.) New England Town meetings.
b.) Committees of Correspondence.
c.) The relative equality of landowning farmers
d.) The absence of a hereditary aristocracy

Most americans considered ______ _______ to be fundamental for any successful republican government.

Civic Virtue

Abigail Adams

Wife of 2nd president John Adams and Mother of 6th president John Q Adams who was very vocal for women rights. Abigail's controversial views for women rights lead to later movements for future women equality.

The Declaration of Independence did:

a.) invoke the natural rights of humankind of justify revolt
b.) Catalog the tyrannical actions of King George III
c.) Argue that royal tyranny justified revolt.
d.)Accused the British of violating the natural rights of the americans

Americans who opposed independence....

Loyalists/ Tories

Independence seeking Americans....

Patriots/ Whigs

The ____ ______ was a minority movement.

The American Revolution

The Patriot militia played a crucial role in the Revolution by:

a.) Taking the task of "political" education
b.) convincing people that British = unreliable Friend
c.) harassing small british detachments
d.) effective agents of revolutionary ideas

The americans who continued to support the crown after independence had been declaired were more likely to be all of the following:

a.) well educated
b.) among the older generation
c.) affiliated with the Anglican church.
d.) Wealthy

The Following fates that befell loyalists after the revolutionary war:

a.) Some fled to england
b.) Some re-established themselves in America.
c.) Some had their property confiscated.
d.) Some were exiled

The Following fates befell the colonial loyalists

a.) tarring and feathering
b.) imprisonment
c.) exile
d.) riding astride fence rails

_________ were least numerous in New England


To help British, colonial Loyalists

a.) Fought for the British
b.) Serve as Spies
c.) kept patriot soldiers at home to protect family
d.) incite Indians

General William Howe did not pursue and defeat George Washington's army after the battle of long island for all the following reasons:

a.) remembered the slaughter of Bunker Hill
b.) country was rough
c.) Supplies were slow coming
d.) did not relish the rigors of a winter campaign

In Late 1776 and early 1777, George Washington helped restore confidence in America's military by defeating Who and where?

the Hessians at Trenton and the British at Princeton

Basic strategy of the British in 1777

Isolate New England.

William Howe

Long Island

John Burgoyne


Charles Cornwallis


Put the battles in chronological order:

a.) Trenton
b.) Saratoga
c.) Long Island
d.) Charleston


Basic principles of the "Model Treaty" and the new philosophy behind american international affairs:

a.) No political connection with Britain
b.) No military connection with Britain
c.) only commercial connection with Britain
d.) Novus Ordo seculorum- a new order for the ages.

Basic principles of the "Model Treaty"

Were self denying restrictions to the Americans

France came to America's Aid in the Revolution because

they wanted revenge against the British

America's first Alliance


The American diplomat that negotiated the "Model Treaty" with France.

Benjamin Franklin

Catherine the Great of Russia

Started the Armed Neutrality League.

When the Alliance with France was formalized, the americans were able to:

a.) Gain access to large sums of money.
b.) Double the size of their fighting forces.
c.) avail themselves of french naval strength.
d.) gain immense amounts of equipment.


Commander of French troops in America

French aid to the colonies

a.) greatly aided America's struggle for independence
b.) was motivated by what the French considered their own national interests
c.) forced the British to change their military strategy
d.) Helped them protect their own West Indies Islands

The colonists suffered their heaviest losses of the revolutionary war at the

Battle of Charleston

George Rogers Clark

Commanded Patriot Troops in the West

Nathanael Greene

-Commanded Patriot Troops in the South
-The "Fighting Quaker"
- Cleared most of Georgia and South Carolina

John Paul Jones

Commanded Patriot Naval forces

Some Indian nations joined the British during the Revolutionary war because

they believed that a British victory would restrain American expansion into the west.

Joseph Brant

Mohawk chief who sided with the British to restrain American expansion into the West

Treaty of Fort Stanwix

1784; U.S. commissioners used military threats to force Pro-British Iroquois tribe peoples to take much of their land in New York and Pennsylvania


-"legalized pirates," more than a thousand strong, who inflicted heavy damage on British shipping

Most important contribution of Privateers during Revolution

was that they capture hundreds of British merchant ships

Britain gave America generous terms in the Treaty of Paris because British leaders were trying to:

persuade America to abandon its alliance with France

1783 - Treaty of Paris

-Formally ended the Revolution
-America broke the assurances regarding treatment of the loyalists.

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