What was Catiline's conspiracy against Cicero? When did this happen?
Catiline tried to overthrow the republic, because he had been defeated for the consulship by Cicero (a blow to his dignitas). Cicero delivered a speech to the senate about Catiline's plans, so Catiline fled Rome in November, 63 BC and died in battle in Eutruria in January, 62 BC.
When was this conspiracy?
63 BC, Cicero and Gaius Antonius were consuls.
What are the two ways to indicate year?
Number of years from the founding of the city - AUC (ab urbe condita), Naming the two consuls of the year - 63 BC (Cicero and Gaius Antonius are consuls, 59 BC (Caesar and Bibulus are consuls)
When and why did Caesar form the Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus?
60 BC, Caesar wanted to ensure the consulship for 59 BC so he could become a proconsul and govern a province in 58 BC.
What province did Caesar govern?
Cisalpine Gaul (includes Illyricum)
What peoples did Caesar attack that caused the Senate to declare him an outlaw?
The Helvetians (modern-day Swiss).
What were Caesar's three options?
1. Return to Rome
2. Ask to run for consulship in absentia
3. Return to Rome with his army
What words did Caesar supposedly say as he crossed the Rubicon River (the northern boundary of italy) in January, 49 BC?
"Alea iacta est." (The die has been cast)
Where and when was Crassus killed?
Crassus was killed fighting the Parthians in 53 BC.
What did Caesar do before fighting Pompey and his forces?
Caesar chased Pompey to Brundisium, went to Spain to defeat Pompey's forces there, and then went over to Greece to finally face Pompey.
What was the first battle between the two and what was the outcome?
The Battle of Dyrrachium (November, 49 BC). Pompey won but refused to pursue Caesar.
What were Pompey's problems?
His army consisted of many former generals with different agendas than his, so it was hard unifying his army.
What was the final battle between the two and what was the outcome?
The Battle of Pharsalus (August, 48 BC). Pompey is badly defeated and flees to Alexandria.
What happened to Pompey in Egypt?
King Ptolemy had him killed and he sent his head and ring to Caesar.
What does Caesar do in Rome?
Caesar returns to Rome for the first time in twelve years and has to deal with the Senate. He disrespected them and was acting like a king, so the Senate (sixty or more) plotted to kill him. Caesar was killed under the gaze of Pompey's statue with 23 wounds (44 BC).
How does Octavian get three armies?
After siding with the Senate, Octavian is sent with the two consuls and their armies to defeat Antony. Both the consuls die in the victory, so their armies go over to Octavian.