Digestive system

94 terms by erinnmc2 

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or/o & stomat/o

mouth

gloss/o & lingu/o

tongue

bucc/o

cheek

cheil/o & labi/o

lips

dent/o & odont/o

teeth

esophag/o

esophagus

pharyng/o

pharynx

gastr/o

stomach

duoden/o

duodenum - the first part of the small intestine

enter/o

(small) intestine

jejun/o

jejunum - the second part of the small intestine

ile/o

ileum - the third part of the small intestine

append/o & appenic/o

appendix

col/o & colon/o

colon

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

proct/o

anus, rectum

hepat/o

liver

pancreat/o

pancreas

chol/e

bile, gall

cholecyst/o

gall bladder

choldoch/o

bile duct

-emesis

vomit

-centesis

surgical puncture

-scope

instrument for examining

-lith

stone, calculus

-itis

inflammation

-megaly

enlargement

hypo-

under, below, deficient

dia-

across

peri-

around

sub-

under, below

BM

bowel movement

GI

gastrointestinal

NG

nasogastric

b.i.d.

twice a day

NPO

nothing by mouth

p.r.n.

as required

hernia

protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained.

melena

passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestional juices

halitosis

bad breath

dysphagia

difficulty swallowing

dysphasia

difficulty speaking

anorexia

lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat

appendicitis

Inflamation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection.

antacids

treat and prevent heartburn and acid reflux

antidiarrheals

used to treat diarrhea

antiemetics

used to treat nausea and vomiting

antispasmodics

used to treat irritable bowel syndrome, spastic colon and diverticulitis

laxitives

used to treat constipation

diagnostic endoscopy

upper GI and lower GI

ingestion

taking in food

peristalsis

involuntary pushing of food along tract

digestion

breakdown of food providing body with essential water, nutrients, and minerals. Completes mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods for absorption by cell membranes

absorption

passage of food from digestive tract to other systems

defication

elimination of waste

Gastrointestinal tract (alimentary canal)

extends from the mouth to the anus.
1. Mouth
2. Pharnyx
3. Esophagus
4. Stomach
5. Small Intestine
6. Large Intestine
7. Anus

Acessory structures

1. teeth
2. tongue
3. saliva glands
4. liver
5. gallbladder
6. pancreas

Amylase

breaks down carbs into maltose (beginning of digestion) ie. cotton candy

bolus

food broken up into a small, round mass

mastication

chewing

32 permanent teeth

# of adult teeth

dentes

teeth

gingival

gums

pharynx

3 sections

nasopharynx

closed off by the uvula and small palate (involuntary)

oropharynx

back of mouth into throat (food voluntarily forced back there)

larngopharynx

after food has passed the sealed off Larynx, it passes through here to the esophagus

sphincter

valve

pepsin

an enzyme that starts the break down of protiens into amino acids

rugae

large folds of the stomach when the stomach is empty, the folds disappear when there is food in the stomach (expands and contracts)

pancreas

responsible for insulin production

lipase

turns fats into fatty acids (glycerol)

amylase

turns carbs into maltose (glucose)

Liver

in the RUQ and the largest internal organ in the body. Manufactures the anticoagulant heprin, prothombin and thrombin. Detoxifies the blood

anticoagulant

agent that slows the clotting process

Small intestine

where most of digestion takes place, 80% of absorption takes place here. 21 feet long and has 3 sections

1.duodenum

starts at the stomach

2.jejunum

middle section

3.ileum

ends at large intestine

Large intestine

no digestion takes place here. Water and vitamins are absorbed here. 4 sections

1.cecum

appendix is attached

2.colon

4 parts...?

3.rectum

...

4.anus

...

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

open sores in the stomach caused by smoking, alcohol and asprin.

Hernia

protrusion of organ tissue or structure through wall of cavity. Can cause strangulation or necrosis.

Hemorrhoids

enlargement of veins in anal area

jaundice

liver can no longer remove bilirubin causing yellowing of the skin

hepetitis A

ingestion of fecal matter

hepetitis B

blood and body fluids

Upper GI endoscopy

esophaoscopy, gastoscopy and duodenoscopy

Lower GI endoscopy

colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy

Appendectomy

removal of inflamed or infected appendix

Lithotripsy

non-invasive surgical proceedure that uses sound waves to break up masses for easy passing. - gallstones, kidney stones.

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