Workers contracted for a period of time in exchange for transportation, food, clothing, lodging, and other necessities. Shopkeepers would often pay a young mans trip to the Americas if they worked for them.
Population growth was mostly due to immigration with a small percentage of Africans.
Midwives/ Medicine in the colonies
Midwives were very traditional mothers or wives who would often take care of the sick, treating them with home "cures". Doctors did not favor midwives due to their incompetence in the field. Medicine in the colonies was merely home remedies with no proof of being able to cure the said disease.
In medicine, humor refers to a fluid (or semifluid) substance. Part of a theory that there was an internal balance of each fluid in the body (phlem, blood, gall, choler) and that any that was overproduced needed to be drained. They would often make incisions and drain the substance, or even make holes in the skull.
Women in the Chesapeake
they weren't married for long periods of time, male dominated households were undermined by female death, sexual relationships were more free, all because more population was needed.
a social system in which the role of the male as the primary authority figure is central to social organization, and where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property. This system was void in the New world, women had more power over men .
Women in New England
Women spun wool and flax into thread to make clothing (cloth was in desperately short supply). They preserved food for winter, made their own butter and cheese, brewed ale (which most people drank instead of water), and made their own soap and candles. They were also expected to have a good knowledge of medicine and first aid, and be able to make medicines for a variety of illnesses.
Puritan Family Life
women were vital but men had the dominant role.
the horrible sea voyage to America for the slaves.
Royal African Company
had a monopoly on slave trade in the mainland colonies, trade restricted to mainland America.
Slaves Codes: laws limiting rights of blacks and giving whites surpreme authority.
German protestants seeking a new life in America lived with the Quakers.
Scots defeated in rebellions and irish faced high taxes so they came to the Americas.
Enormous cash crop for the colonies. Made the plantations in the reigon very wealthy. Although, overproduction caused drop in price.
Economic Staple in the Americas, unable to farm in large quantaties because rice paddies were plagued by mosquitos, work left to black slaves due to their ability work in harsh conditions and resist disease.
Eliza Lucas was a young Antiguan woman who experimented with growing Indigo plant on the mainland. Discovered optimum conditions in south Carolina. Areas unsuitable for rice.
first effort to establish an ironworks in the colonies in massachussets in the 1640s after iron had been discovered in the reigons. Used water power to drive bellows. Technological success. Financial failure.
German ironmaster who established the biggest industrial enterprise in English north America. In New Jersey.
Iron Act of 1750
restricted metal processing in the colonies. Part of reason why Great Britain did not experience such an explosive industrial growth.
Lack of Technology
Most Americans remained too poor or isolated to afford newer technology. Work was twice as labor intensive and normal life was harder to live.
trade and business between colonies and the west indies. Goods such as rum, agricultural products, meat, and fish.
a trade that linked the North American colonies in an intricate network of commerce with England, continental Europe, and the African West coast.
Growth of Merchant class
adventurous entrepreneurs who decided to take advantage of the growing trade in the colonies.
the ability to display and purchase consumer goods. Growth was a product of early stages of the industrial revolution.
people began to make luxuries into necessities, this in turn changed the society to become more sophisticated and to become the refined "gentleman" or "gracious lady". Strove to develop into witty an educated conversationalists. Town squares, parks, boulevards, became places of social interest and interaction.
the ability to move up or down the social ladder, America (at that time) allowed for social mobility due to the large expanses of land and the very few people.
definied a distinctive way of life got many white and black southerners that would survive in varying forms. Large tobacco plantation emerged in settlements such as Virgina and Maryland.
they created self sustained communities with dusters of buildings and plantations, and slave quarters.
Blacks and whites were extemerly separate and did not interact in a non working manner with eachother.
slaves developed their own sub culture with their own language, which was a mix of African and English tounges. They were heavily influenced by their white rulers. Separate quarters slaves lived on plantations of 50 or more.
rebellion of 100 black slaves who grabbed tools and rose up against their owners, killed many whites, but soon, the rebellion was crushed and the slaves were almost all executed.
orderly towns with central and common church with surrounding farms each town made covenant.
had a meeting once a year elected "select men till nest year, "saints" had most influence.
Inheritance in New England
land was divided up among sons, giving father power.
Strains on Puritan Society
As population grew, towns stretched further and caused settlers to move away from the centralized towns making new towns was confrontational.
conflict between father and sons over land.
Salem Witch Trials
young girls accused slaves of witchcraft who knew about voodoo, accusations shifted to other townspeople, 19 were hung.
Growth Of cities/ social problems in cities
cities grew (largest 28.000) problems included disparities in income, poor and indigents, governments were complicated.
movement of ideas that stressed science and that we have control over our own lives, not just god in control, focused on intellect not blind faith.
wasn't intentional but came because of all the different groups that immigrated or splintered.
Catholicism- protestans hated the Catholics naturally because of old world oppression. They also feared the catholic French who were commercial and military rivals.
Sermons preaching about the loss of piety and wning chuch influence.
The Great Awakening
religious revival that spread through colonial America as a result of declining piety.
John / Charles Wesley
Made evangelizing tours through the colonies preaching to "start a new relationship with god" they founded Methodism.
preached against the traditional puritan ideas of no easy salvation and predestination.
Old lights/ New lights
popular publications that helped promotes literacy similar to newspaper.
one of the first universities started most were founded to train preachers but the new scientific influence could be felt.
William and Mary College
established in willamsburg to train clergymen.
College of New Jersey
later known as Princeton.
more devoted to non religious knowledge than others before.
Academy and college of Philadelphia
completely secular college inspired by Benjamin franklin.
Most celebrated amateur scientist famed for his explanation of electricity.
John Peter Zenger
Publisher who was defended by his lawyer because of critisicims of government.