Age of Reason, Age of Revolution, and Neoclassicism
Name three characters whose opposite qualities could exist side by side?
(a)Jonathan Edwards- Strong puritan faith and belief in medical science
(b) Cotton Mather- Strong Puritan faith and belief in medical science
(c)Thomas Jefferson- Wrote declaration of independence and owned slaves
Reason(part of age of reason def)
gods special gift to humanity, man can discover his weaknesses and overcome them with it.
Age of Reason
Belief that God made it possible for all to reason... henceforth promoted equality.
Rationalism does not rely on ?
(a) religious faith
Age of Revolution
(a)American Revolution- "No Taxation without representation". American people seperate themselves from English Rule
(b)French Revolution- Monarch deposed (and executed)
belief that God existed and created universe but does not interact
(a) Shows scientific influence on religious beliefs
(b) God as "Clockmaker" (Newton's term)--- not involvedin worl'ds events Universe is orderly and good
(c)Man basically good
Rationalism was a reaction to/rejection of Puritanism
(a)change from religious centered view in writings to one of man and science
(b)Sentence structure changes- gains complexity, increase in stylistic devices
(c)Faith in man himself rather than viewing man as a sinner in the need of Grace
refers to " return to Classic Age "
(a) didactic in nature
(b) more rooted in " reality rather than in imagination"
(c)Most writing center on social,political, and scientific improvements
Rise in Individual Freedoms
(a)french revolution to end opression
(b)American Revolution to gain rights
(c) Paine- Rights of Man
National pride (nationalism)
(a)identifying ourselves as a group eg. Americans rather than British
(b) Growth of seperate philosophies from those england, france, and other "homelands"
(a) Didactic writings, explains how to improve one's life
(b) experimenting, science discoveries
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
(a) The Federalist Papers
(a) Common Sense (The Crisis) writings to support the revolution; persuasive style
(b) Rights of Man essay caused him to lose favor in America, too anit-religious
Michel de Crevecouer
(a) Letters from an American Farmer
(b) American pioneer farmer "findshimself suddenly deprived of the assistance of friends, neighbors, tradesmen ,and all those inferior links which make a well established society so beautiful and pleasing.
" against the man" fallacy of attacking the opponent instead of his her argument
Begging the question
Argumentation in which the believability of evidence depends on the believability of the claim. Also called " circular Reasoning"
Writwr reduces argument or issues to two polar opposites and ignores any alternatives.
writer appeals to the audiences emotions(pathos) and ignores or down-plays logical argument (logos)
writer uses same term in two different senses in an argument
An individual instance taken to be representative of general pattern. Arguing by example is considered reliable if examples aree demonstratrably true factual as well relevant
when tow cases are not sufficiently parallel to lead readers to accept a claim connection between them
basing a claim upon an isolated example or asserting that a claim is certain rather than probable. sweeping generalizations occur when a writer asserts that a claim applies to all instances instead of only to some
"it does not follow" when one statement isnt logically connected to another
the writer obscures or denies the complexity of the issues in an argument
Post hoc, Ergo propter hoc
"after this, therefore because of this this", writer implies that because one thing follows another, the first caused second, when in fact the sequence is not the cause
An irrelevant issue to draw away attention away from the real issue
when a writer musters relevant opposing arguments
arguing against a claim that nobody actually holds or is universally considered weak. this is done to draw attention away from real issue.