products of mechanical and chemical weathering
Sedimentary rocks are important for economic considerations because
they may contain
Petroleum and natural gas
Sources of Fe, Al, and Mn
Detrital sedimentary rocks
transported sediment as solid particles
Chemical sedimentary rocks
sediment that was once in solution
Organic sedimentary rocks
detrital rocks include
Mud-sized particles in thin layers that are called laminae
Parallel alignment of grains
Barrier to flow of water
Low energy environments of deposition
Most common sedimentary rock--can be shales, mudstones, siltstones
Rock composed mainly of sand-sized particles
Forms in a variety of environments
Predominant mineral = quartz
Conglomerate consists largely of
Breccia is composed mainly of large
evaporation, chemical activity
-life processes of water-dwelling organisms
Most abundant chemical rock
Composed chiefly of the mineral calcite
Marine biochemical limestones form as coral reefs, coquina (broken shells), and chalk (microscopic organisms)
Inorganic limestones include travertine and oolitic limestone
Typically formed secondarily from limestone
Varieties include flint, agate, and jasper
Evaporation triggers deposition of chemical precipitates
Different from other rocks because it is composed of organic material
1. Plant material
4. Bituminous coal
Chemical, physical, and biological changes that take place after sediments are deposited and lithified.
Occurs within the upper few kilometers of Earth's crust
Two major textures are used in the classification of sedimentary rocks
Discrete fragments and particles
All detrital rocks have a clastic texture
Pattern of interlocking crystals
May resemble an igneous rock
Types of Sedimentary Environments
Marine Sedimentary Environments
Types of sedimentary structures
A sedimentary facies is the sedimentary rock's ________.
environment of deposition
Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited by fast-moving streams?
Oolitic limestone is most likely to form in what type of depositional environment?
shallow, clear marine waters with vigorous current activity
If shale is such a common rock in the sedimentary rock world, why isn't it as prominently exposed at the surface as sandstone?
Shale crumbles easily, causing increased mechanical weathering, whereas sandstone resists weathering more effectively.
Which of the following is a feasible explanation as to why quartz sandstone is an excellent use of "uniformitarianism"
Layers of sand-size quartz-rich sediment found today at the beach are virtually identical to layers in a 10-million-year-old sandstone, thus suggesting the location of the sandstone was the location of a beach 10 million years ago.
Many limestones are ________.
Which are sedimentary rocks?
Conglomerate and mudstone
How do you classify sedimentary rocks?
Texture and grain size