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Your textbook defines psychology as which of the following?
a. The science of behavior
b. The study of mental processes
c. The study of mental disorders and their treatment
d. The science of mind and behavior

d. The science of mind and behavior

2. Allanah has declared psychology as her major. Which of the following alternatives best identifies what Allanah will study?
a. Mental processes
b. Mind and behavior
c. Psychological disorders and their treatment
d. The development of the individual

b. Mind and behavior

3. Barry states that psychology is the study of the mind. Candace states that psychology is the science of behavior. How might you evaluate these two statements?

d. Both statements are partially correct.

4. What, if anything, unites psychology?
a. All psychologists are committed to the scientific method.
b. All psychologists conduct research.
c. All psychologists focus on measuring behavior.
d. All psychologists use the same theoretical approach in studying mind and behavior.

a. All psychologists are committed to the scientific method.

5. Creating knowledge is to using knowledge as _____ is to _____.
a. psychologist-practitioner; research psychologist
b. psychologist-practitioner; experimental psychologist
c. research psychologist; psychologist-practitioner
d. research psychologist; experimental psychologist

c. research psychologist; psychologist-practitioner

6. Dr. Estevez is a cognitive psychologist. Dr. Francis is a school psychologist. Dr. Gigliotti is a counseling psychologist. Which of these individuals is most likely a research psychologist?
a. Both Dr. Francis and Dr. Gigliotti are likely research psychologists.
b. None of these individuals is likely a research psychologist.
c. Dr. Gigliotti is most likely a research psychologist.
d. Dr. Estevez is most likely a research psychologist.

d. Dr. Estevez is most likely a research psychologist.

7. Which of the following is the best definition of the hindsight bias?
a. The ability to remember the past.
b. The ability to remember the past more than the present.
c. The ability to understand the causes of complex events.
d. The tendency to think that we could have predicted things that we probably would not have been able to predict.

d. The tendency to think that we could have predicted things that we probably would not have been able to predict.

8. Which of the following best describes the "everyday research" that we all perform when we try to understand thoughts and behavior?
a. It is usually accurate.
b. It is never accurate
c. It can lead us to believe that we know the causes of things when we really do not
d. It is performed very rarely

c. It can lead us to believe that we know the causes of things when we really do not

9. One morning, Alan wakes to the news that a powerful earthquake occurred in California. "I told you the big one would hit this year!" he exclaims. Alan appears subject to the _____ bias.
a. cognitive
b. hindsight
c. predictive
d. foresight

b. hindsight

10. Dr. Harris is describing the assumptions, rules, and procedures that psychologists use to gather observations. Dr. Harris is outlining the _____ method.
a. deductive
b. psychological
c. rational
d. scientific

d. scientific

11. The set of assumptions, rules, and procedures that scientists use to conduct empirical research. This statement best describes _____
a. data
b. empiricism
c. the scientific method
d. the hindsight bias

c. the scientific method

12. Personal statements are to objective statements as _____ are to _____.
a. facts; values
b. theories; facts
c. values; theories
d. values; facts

d. values; facts

13. "History is the most fundamental of all the humanities," lectures a professor early in the semester. In your textbook's terms, the professor's statement is a _____.
a. theory
b. value
c. fact
d. rule

b. value

Based on your text's discussion, which of the following alternatives best expresses the relationship between facts and values?
a. Research can sometimes provide facts that can help people develop their values.
b. Values are more important than facts.
c. Facts and values are independent of each other.
d. Facts and values are often indistinguishable.

a. Research can sometimes provide facts that can help people develop their values.

Regarding science, which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. Science is completely objective.
b. Science is not at all objective.
c. Values affect science.
d. Science is value-free.

c. Values affect science.

16. Your textbook describes a study in which participants preferred tea whose name contained the first 3 letters of their own name 64% of time, and tea whose name contained the first three letters of their experimental partner's name 36% of the time. If unconscious preferences had no effect on behavior then participants should have chosen the tea whose name included the first three letters of their name what percent of the time?
a. 75
b. 33
c. 25
d. 50

d. 50

17. Which of the following sequences correctly orders the level of explanation in psychology, from the lowest to the highest?
a. social/cultural ; interpersonal; biological
b. interpersonal ; social/cultural; biological
c. biological; social/cultural ; interpersonal
d. biological; interpersonal; social/cultural

d. biological; interpersonal; social/cultural

18. Dr. Kennison relates binge drinking among college students to personality traits such as conscientiousness. Dr. Leblanc relates college binge drinking to the proportion of students living on campus. Dr. Kennison is analyzing binge drinking at the _____ level. Dr. Leblanc is studying binge drinking at the _____ level.
a. interpersonal; social/cultural
b. interpersonal; interpersonal
c. social/cultural; interpersonal
d. social/cultural; social/cultural

a. interpersonal; social/cultural

19. When scientists conduct research, they may find that what they thought were facts are actually incorrect. What normally happens in this case?
a. The old facts become values
b. The old facts are forgotten
c. The old facts are replaced with new facts based on newer and more correct data.
d. The scientific method does not separate facts from values

c. The old facts are replaced with new facts based on newer and more correct data.

20. Which level of explanation in psychology is correctly matched with an example?
a. Social/cultural level -- At low doses, cocaine can improve performance on visual attention tasks such as detecting specific stimuli appearing on a computer screen.
b. Interpersonal level -- Cocaine abuse is associated with a history of violence and sexual abuse in the family.
c. Biological level -- Cocaine exerts its effects by prolonging the presence of specific chemicals at the junctions between nerve cells.
d. Social/cultural level -- Cocaine abuse is associated with high levels of the personality trait of neuroticism and with low levels of the trait of conscientiousness.

c. Biological level -- Cocaine exerts its effects by prolonging the presence of specific chemicals at the junctions between nerve cells.

21. Which of these statements is at the social/cultural level of explanation?
a. Depression is in part genetically influenced
b. Psychotherapy can be used to help people combat depression
c. Women experience more depression than men do
d. Depression is influenced by the action of neurotransmitters in the brain

c. Women experience more depression than men do

22. Which of the following challenges of studying psychology is correctly matched with a description?
a. Individual differences - Behavior is usually caused by many factors simultaneously.
b. Unconscious processes - Behavior is often caused by factors outside our awareness.
c. Behavior is multiply determined - The factors causing behavior are often interrelated.
d. Repression - The awareness of a thought or behavior
Answer: b; Easy

b. Unconscious processes - Behavior is often caused by factors outside our awareness.

23. Which of the following challenges of studying psychology is correctly matched with an example?
a. Individual differences - Some people have lower self-esteem than are others.
b. Unconscious processes - Gender differences in aggression reflect not only hormonal differences, but also cultural norms.
c. Behavior is multiply determined - Behavior is often caused by factors that are outside of our awareness.
d. All of these are correctly matched

a. Individual differences - Some people have lower self-esteem than are others.

24. Which challenge of studying psychology did Freud bring to our attention?
a. unconscious processes
b. individual differences
c. multiple causes
d. interrelated causes

a. unconscious processes

25. Which of the following is the best definition of heritability?
a. The proportion of observed differences among people that is due to genetics
b. The extent to which men and women differ in terms of their genetic makeup
c. The average genetic similarity between identical twins.
d. The average genetic similarity among strangers.

a. The proportion of observed differences among people that is due to genetics

26. A professor of cognitive psychology tells her class, "One of the difficulties researchers face in evaluating potential gender differences in mathematical reasoning is that men vary dramatically in mathematical reasoning ability, and so do women." The professor is referring to the challenge of:
a. unconscious processes
b. multiple levels of explanation
c. interrelated causes
d. individual differences

d. individual differences

27. Behavior is produced by many causes. That is, behavior is:
a. subject to individual differences
b. unidimensionally described
c. multiply determined
d. produced by interrelated factors

c. multiply determined

28. Behavior is determined by multiple factors. These factors are often:
a. unrelated
b. interrelated
c. synonymous
d. opposing

b. interrelated

29. Which of the following best defines individual differences?
a. the average correlation among personality variables
b. average differences between men and women on depression
c. variations among people
d. extreme rather than moderate changes in behavior

c. variations among people

30. A time-travel mishap lands Freud at the 2010 conference of the Association for Psychological Science. How would Freud probably react to the interest in unconscious processes among contemporary psychologists?
a. He would be gratified to see how his ideas about the unconscious have been used by psychologists.
b. He would be disappointed to see how his ideas about the unconscious have been ignored by psychologists.
c. He would argue that he did not believe in the unconscious

a. He would be gratified to see how his ideas about the unconscious have been used by psychologists.

31. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in your text as a challenge facing psychologists in the study of thought and behavior?
a. People vary dramatically in thought and behavior.
b. Behavior reflects multiple causes simultaneously.
c. The biological basis of behavior is largely unknown.
d. The causes of behavior are often outside awareness.

c. The biological basis of behavior is largely unknown.

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