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systolic blood pressure

Some research indicates that lowering sodium may reduce

presence of hypertension or osteoporosis

Absorption of minerals can be limited by each of the following factors except

eating lean meat

All of the following may help reduce hypertension and its side effects except

processed foods

The most sodium in a typical American diet comes from

potassium

Too much ___________ can slow and eventually stop the heart, and supplements should be taken only under the care of a physician.

high blood pressure

Each of the following are functions/characteristics of chloride except absorption is greater in a person with

extracellular

Chloride resides mainly in _____________ fluid, and is critical for transmitting nerve impulses and for maintaining acid-base balance.

chloride levels

As a result of excessive vomiting, people with bulimia nervosa often have

bones and teeth

Over 99% of calcium in the body is found within the

calcium

Which mineral is responsible for making muscles contract or relax?

potassium intake

Which of the following increases urinary calcium and makes bone loss worse?

phosphorus and calcium

Which two minerals make up the complex hydroxyapatite?

magnesium

Which mineral participates with over 300 types of enzyme-driven reactions, including those in DNA and protein synthesis, blood clotting, muscle contraction, and ATP production? Americans are most likely to not get enough of which of the following minerals?

iron

Which mineral is known for transporting oxygen in blood? Which mineral deficiency is the most common worldwide? Which is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world?

iron-deficiency anemia

The last stage of iron deficiency is

selenium

Which deficiency worsens hypothyroidism caused by iodine deficiency?

iodine

Large amounts of __________ inhibit synthesis of thyroid hormone, and stimulate thyroid growth and goiter.

small intestine

The majority of copper is absorbed in the

fluoride

Which mineral inhibits bacterial activity in the mouth, and shifts toward depositing minerals?

vitamin C

Which of the following is not a fat-soluble vitamin? Which water-soluble vitamin plays an important role in the formation of collagen?

liver

Excess fat-soluble vitamins typically accumulate in the

enrichment

Replacing lost nutrients in foods is called

vitamin A

Which vitamin plays a primary role in vision and the development of body cells?

retinalogical

Which is not considered an active form of vitamin A?

calcitriol

The active form of vitamin D is called? The active form of vitamin D is?

rickets

Which of the following diseases is associated with a vitamin D deficiency?

body fat

Where is vitamin E primarily stored?

vitamin K

Which vitamin is primarily responsible for blood clotting? Newborns are susceptible to ____ deficiency if they are not given an injection of this vitamin at birth.

3 cups spinach

Of the following foods, which is the best source of vitamin K?

beriberi

A common deficiency associated with thiamin is

niacin

The body needs _________ to synthesize fatty acids. Which vitamin can be made from the amino acid tryptophan?

B6

Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is the primary coenzyme for vitamin ____.

400

The RDA for folate is __________ micrograms per day for adult men and women age 19 and older.

folate

Spina bifida and heart disease have been associated with a deficiency in which of the following?

biotin

Eating too many raw egg whites may adversely affect the absorption of

scurvy

A deficiency associated with inadequate levels of vitamin C is

vitamin E

When taken in large amounts exceeding UL values along with blood thinners and aspirin, ________________ can interfere with blood clotting.

thiamin

Which vitamin helps reactions break down glucose, make RNA and DNA, or produce energy rich molecules that power protein synthesis?

proteins

Which nutrient tends to have a stronger satiating effect?

high fiber and water content

Which types of foods tend to have higher satiety value?

resting energy expenditure

Most of our energy is typically expended on basic body functions that account for 60 to 75% of total energy expenditure; this energy use is called

15 to 30

Energy expended on physical activity such as work, exercise, and all daily movement accounts for __________% of total energy expenditure.

thermic effect of food

The energy used to digest, absorb, and metabolize energy yielding foodstuffs is called

age, physical activity level,height and weight

Which of the following is used to help determine estimated energy expenditure (EER)?

BMI index

Which of the following methods is least effective for measuring body fat?

low

Body fat levels of 6-10% for men and 12-19% for women are considered

gynoid obesity

A pattern of fat being predominantly distributed around the hips and thighs, more common in women, is known as

hyperplasia

If a person is said to suffer from ______, this means his or her fat tissue is likely to have bigger fat cells, and more of them

Obesity

___ is a risk factor for which of the following chronic diseases, heart disease, diabetes and cancer?

Eat a high-protein diet

Which of the following is not considered sound advice for dieting and eating?

Xenical and Meridia

For long-term use, which of the following drug(s) is/are presently approved for treating obesity?

environmental functions

Which internal factor does not influence hunger?

collagen

The most abundant protein in mammals is

antibodies

Blood proteins that attack and inactivate bacteria and viruses that cause infection are called

celiac

Individuals with _______________ disease cannot properly digest gluten found in wheat, rye, and oats.

10 to 35

The AMDR for protein is______% of the total calories each day.

kidney beans

Which food is the poorest source of protein?

kwashiorkor

A protein deficiency resulting in swelling of the body tissue primarily in the feet, legs, and belly is called

loss of calcium

Excess dietary protein can cause

keratin

Which of the following is a water-insoluble fibrous protein that is responsible for strong hair and nails?

blood proteins

If the diet does not supply enough ___ ___, edema will occur because ___ ___ attract fluid from cells to the capillaries

whole-wheat bagel and peanut butter

An example of a good complementary food combination is a

triglycerides; adipose tissue

In the body, fat cells store ___________ as ______________.

polyunsaturated

Which type of fatty acid has two or more carbon double bonds?

more solid

Adding hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated fatty acid will make it

omega-6

Examples of _____________ fatty acids include seeds, nuts, and vegetable oils.

egg whites

Which one of the following is not a common source of phospholipids?

plant sterols and dietary fiber

Cholesterol absorption in the small intestine declines when the intestine contains

5 to 10

The AMDR for fat is _____________% of daily kilocalorie intake.

olestra

One of the most highly controversial fat substitutes is

controlling blood pressure

To reduce the risk of cancer, the American Cancer Society recommends all of the following except

cancer or AIDS

Declining cholesterol levels often signal deteriorating health in people with

recommend fluid intake

Fever, coughing, rapid breathing, and water nasal secretions all increase water loss significantly, making your body dehydrated.

atherosclersis develops

Fatty plaque accumulates where arteries are damaged, making it mor difficult for the heart to pump blood effectively through the arteries, and decreasing the amount of nutrients delivered throughout the body.

stroke and heart attack

Blood clots tend to form at sites of artery damage, further limiting blood flow throughout the body. The clots can break loose and travel to the brain or the heart, blocking the flow of blood to that organ, and causing the stroke or heart attack.

fluoride prevention

inhibits bacterial activity, and shifts the balance toward depositing minerals. This action in teeth helps counter normal mineral loss, a loss that acid-forming bacteria accelerate.

excess fat soluble vitamins

acccumalate in the liver and fatty tissue. The body does not store most water-soluble vitamins in appreciable amounts. the kidneys filter out most water-soluble vitamin and excrete them in the urine.

night blindness

When you enter a dark room, not only do your eyes dilate, but they also produce rhodopsin to increase their sensitivity to light. The speed of adjusting to dim light is related directly to the amount of vitamin A available to regenerate rhodopsin.

megaloblastic anemia

When red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow cannot form new DNA, they cannot divide normally. These precursor cells continue to grow, and become large, fragile, immature cells called megaloblasts. Megaloblasts displace RBC , resulting in ____ ____.

lycopene absorp

Dietary fat from the oil or salad dressing carry fat soluble substances, such as lycopene, through the digestine process, improving intestinal absorption.

three sources of energy

carbohydrates (primary), fats (secondary), proteins (tertiary)

hydrogenation

What is the process by which Trans fats are made?

oxidation

What is the process which turns food rancid?

omega-3 and 6

What are the two essential fattyacid families

lipo proteins

What carries the water insoluble lipids like cholesterol in your body?

sodium and potassium

Name the two ions that regulate nerve impulses?

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