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1) Though plants, fungi, and prokaryotes all have cell walls, we classify them under different taxonomic units. Which of the observations below comes closest to explaining the basis for placing these organisms in different taxa?

A) Some have cell walls only for support.
B) Some closely resemble animals, which lack cell walls.
C) Their cell walls are constructed from very different biochemicals.
D) Some have cell walls only to control osmotic balance.
E) Some have cell walls only for protection from herbivores.

C) Their cell walls are constructed from very different biochemicals.

2) Which of the following is the most common compound in the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria?

A) peptidoglycan
B) cellulose
C) protein
D) lipopolysaccharide
E) lignin

A) peptidoglycan

3) If penicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits enzymes from catalyzing the synthesis of peptidoglycan, then which prokaryotes should be most vulnerable to inhibition by penicillin?

A) gram-positive bacteria
B) spore-bearing bacteria
C) gram-negative bacteria
D) archaea
E) mycoplasmas

A) gram-positive bacteria

4) Which of the following is the correct order, from most external to most internal?

1. cell wall
2. plasma membrane
3. capsule

A) 1, 3, 2
B) 2, 1, 3
C) 1, 2, 3
D) 3, 2, 1
E) 3, 1, 2

E) 3, 1, 2

5) Jams, jellies, preserves, honey, and other foodstuffs with a high-sugar content hardly ever become contaminated by bacteria, even when the food containers are left open at room temperature. This is because bacteria that encounter such an environment

A) are unable to metabolize the glucose or fructose and thus starve to death.
B) undergo death by lysis.
C) are unable to swim through these thick and viscous materials.
D) undergo death by plasmolysis.
E) suffocate once the lid is replaced.

D) undergo death by plasmolysis

6) Which two structures play direct roles in permitting bacteria to adhere to each other, or to other surfaces?

1. capsules
2. endospores
3. fimbriae
4. plasmids
5. flagella

1. capsules

3. fimbriae

7) Prokaryotes have ribosomes different from those of eukaryotes. Because of this, which of the following is true?

A) Some antibiotics can block the formation of cross-links in the peptidoglycan walls of bacteria.
B) Translation can occur at the same time as transcription in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes.
C) Prokaryotes are able to use a much greater variety of molecules as food sources than can eukaryotes.
D) Some selective antibiotics can block protein synthesis of bacteria without harming the eukaryotic host.
E) Eukaryotes did not evolve from prokaryotes.

D) Some selective antibiotics can block protein synthesis of bacteria without harming the eukaryotic host.

The following question refer to structures found in a gram-positive prokaryotic cell.

8) composed almost entirely of peptidoglycan

A. endospore
B. sex pilus
C. flagellum
D. cell wall
E. capsule

D. cell wall

The following question refer to structures found in a gram-positive prokaryotic cell.

9) requires ATP to function, and permits some species to respond to taxes.

A. endospore
B. sex pilus
C. flagellum
D. cell wall
E. capsule

C. flagellum

The following question refer to structures found in a gram-positive prokaryotic cell.

10) Not present in all bacteria, this slimy material enables cells that possess it to resist the defenses of host organisms.

A. endospore
B. sex pilus
C. flagellum
D. cell wall
E. capsule

E. capsule

The following question refer to structures found in a gram-positive prokaryotic cell.

11) Not present in all bacteria, this structure enables those that possess it to germinate after exposure to harsh conditions, such as boiling.

A. endospore
B. sex pilus
C. flagellum
D. cell wall
E. capsule

A. endospore

The following question refer to structures found in a gram-positive prokaryotic cell.

12) structure that permits conjugation to occur

A. endospore
B. sex pilus
C. flagellum
D. cell wall
E. capsule

B. sex pilus

The following question refer to structures found in a gram-positive prokaryotic cell.

13) an important source of endotoxin in gram-negative species

A. endospore
B. sex pilus
C. flagellum
D. cell wall
E. capsule

D. cell wall

The following question refer to structures found in a gram-positive prokaryotic cell.

14) If this structure connects the cytoplasm of two bacteria, one of these cells may gain new genetic material.

A. endospore
B. sex pilus
C. flagellum
D. cell wall
E. capsule

B. sex pilus

The following question refer to structures found in a gram-positive prokaryotic cell.

15) This structure contains a copy of the chromosome, along with a small amount of dehydrated cytoplasm, within a tough wall.

A. endospore
B. sex pilus
C. flagellum
D. cell wall
E. capsule

A. endospore

16) Mitochondria are descendants of alpha proteobacteria. They are, however, no longer able to lead independent lives because most genes originally present on their chromosome are now located in the nuclear genome. What phenomenon most directly accounts for the movement of these genes?

A) binary fission
B) conjugation
C) meiosis
D) horizontal gene transfer
E) plasmolysis

D) horizontal gene transfer

17) Carl Woese of the University of Illinois and his collaborators identified two major branches of prokaryotic evolution. What was the basis for dividing prokaryotes into two domains?

A) microscopic examination of staining characteristics
B) metabolic characteristics such as the production of methane gas
C) ecological characteristics such as the ability to survive in extreme environments
D) molecular characteristics such as ribosomal RNA sequences
E) metabolic characteristics such as chemoautotrophy and photosynthesis

D) molecular characteristics such as ribosomal RNA sequences

18) Prokaryotic organisms have recently been divided into two domains, Bacteria and Archaea. This division is based on characteristics such as

A) differences in their initiator amino acid for start of protein synthesis.
B) differences in cell wall composition.
C) presence or absence of histones.
D) B and C only
E) A, B, and C

C) presence or absence of histones.

19) Which of the following traits do archaea and bacteria share?

1. composition of the cell wall
2. presence of plasma membrane
3. lack of a nuclear envelope
4. identical rRNA sequences

A) 2 and 3
B) 2 and 4
C) 1 only
D) 1 and 3
E) 3 only

A) 2 and 3

20) What is the primary ecological role of prokaryotes?

A) metabolizing materials in extreme environments
B) parasitizing eukaryotes, thus causing diseases
C) serving as primary producers in terrestrial environments
D) breaking down organic matter
E) adding methane to the atmosphere

D) breaking down organic matter

21) If all the bacteria on Earth suddenly disappeared, which of the following would be the most likely and most direct result?

A) Recycling of nutrients would be greatly reduced, at least initially.
B) Human populations would thrive in the absence of disease.
C) Earth's total photosynthesis would decline markedly.
D) The number of organisms on Earth would decrease by 10-20%.
E) There would be little change in Earth's ecosystems.

A) Recycling of nutrients would be greatly reduced, at least initially.

22) Which of the following would most likely occur if all prokaryotes were suddenly to perish?

A) Very little change would occur because prokaryotes are not of significant ecological importance.
B) All life would eventually perish due to disease.
C) Many organisms would perish as nutrient recycling underwent dramatic reduction.
D) Only the organisms that feed directly on prokaryotes would suffer any harmful effects.
E) All life would eventually perish because of increased global warming due to the greenhouse effect.

C) Many organisms would perish as nutrient recycling underwent dramatic reduction.

23) In which of the following ways can prokaryotes be considered to be more successful on Earth than humans?

A) Prokaryotes occupy more diverse habitats than humans.
B) Prokaryotes have survived on Earth for billions of years longer than humans have.
C) Prokaryotes are much more numerous and have more biomass than humans.
D) Only B and C are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct

E) A, B, and C are correct

A) Prokaryotes occupy more diverse habitats than humans.
B) Prokaryotes have survived on Earth for billions of years longer than humans have.
C) Prokaryotes are much more numerous and have more biomass than humans.

24) What is the function of the bacterium's capsule

A) protection
B) adhesion
C) protein synthesis
D) DNA containment
E) propulsion

A) protection

25) The prokaryotic cells that built stromatolites are classified as ________.

A) proteobacteria
B) chlamydias
C) spirochetes
D) gram-positive bacteria
E) cyanobacteria

E) cyanobacteria

26) Photoautotrophs use

A) light as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source
B) light as an energy source and methane as a carbon source
C) N2 as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source
D) CO2 as both an energy source and a carbon source
E) H2S as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source

A) light as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source

27) Plantlike photosynthesis that releases O2 occurs in
A) cyanobacteria
B) chlamydias
C) archaea
D) actinomycetes
E) chemoautotrophic bacteria

A) cyanobacteria

28) An example of bioremediation is

the use of prokaryotes to treat sewage and CO2 as a carbon source.

Match the numbered terms to the descriptions that follow. Choose all appropriate terms, but only appropriate terms.

29) an organism that obtains its energy from chemicals

1. autotroph
2. heterotroph
3. phototroph
4. chemotroph

4. chemotroph

Match the numbered terms to the descriptions that follow. Choose all appropriate terms, but only appropriate terms.

30) a prokaryote that obtains both energy and carbon as it decomposes dead organisms

1. autotroph
2. heterotroph
3. phototroph
4. chemotroph

2. heterotroph
4. chemotroph

Match the numbered terms to the descriptions that follow. Choose all appropriate terms, but only appropriate terms.

31) an organism that obtains both carbon and energy by ingesting prey

1. autotroph
2. heterotroph
3. phototroph
4. chemotroph

2. heterotroph
4. chemotroph

Match the numbered terms to the descriptions that follow. Choose all appropriate terms, but only appropriate terms.

32) an organism that relies on photons to excite electrons within its membranes

1. autotroph
2. heterotroph
3. phototroph
4. chemotroph

3. phototroph

For the following questions, use the list below of types of bacterial metabolism. Pick the term that best matches the statement. Responses may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

33) cyanobacteria

A. photoautotrophs
B. photoheterotrophs
C. chemoautotroph
D. chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition
E. parasitic chemoheterotrophs

A. photoautotrophs

For the following questions, use the list below of types of bacterial metabolism. Pick the term that best matches the statement. Responses may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

34) use light energy to synthesize organic compounds from CO2

A. photoautotrophs
B. photoheterotrophs
C. chemoautotroph
D. chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition
E. parasitic chemoheterotrophs

A. photoautotrophs

For the following questions, use the list below of types of bacterial metabolism. Pick the term that best matches the statement. Responses may be used once, more than once, or not at all.


35) obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances; energy that is used, in part, to fix CO2


A. photoautotrophs
B. photoheterotrophs
C. chemoautotroph
D. chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition
E. parasitic chemoheterotrophs

C. chemoautotroph

For the following questions, use the list below of types of bacterial metabolism. Pick the term that best matches the statement. Responses may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

36) use light energy to generate ATP but do not release oxygen

A. photoautotrophs
B. photoheterotrophs
C. chemoautotroph
D. chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition
E. parasitic chemoheterotrophs

B. photoheterotrophs

For the following questions, use the list below of types of bacterial metabolism. Pick the term that best matches the statement. Responses may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

37) responsible for high levels of O2 in Earth's atmosphere

A. photoautotrophs
B. photoheterotrophs
C. chemoautotroph
D. chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition
E. parasitic chemoheterotrophs

A. photoautotrophs

For the following questions, use the list below of types of bacterial metabolism. Pick the term that best matches the statement. Responses may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

38) responsible for many human diseases

A. photoautotrophs
B. photoheterotrophs
C. chemoautotroph
D. chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition
E. parasitic chemoheterotrophs

E. parasitic chemoheterotrophs

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