olfactory nerve (I); optic nerve (II); occulomotor nerve (III); trochlear nerve (IV); trigeminal nerve (V); abducent nerve (VI); facial nerve (VII); vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII); glossopharyngeal nerve (IX); vagus nerve (X); hypoglossal nerve (XII); accessory nerve (XI)
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The part of the CNS contained in the cranial cavity.
The brain is the _____ center for many of the body's functions and is much like a complex _______.
spinal cord; brain; survival
The brainstem connects the ______ ____ to the _____ and integrates reflexes necessary for ________.
T or F: Cranial nerves are part of the PNS that arises directly from the brain.
Two pairs of cranial nerves arise from the ______, while ten pairs arise from the ________.
brainstem; medulla oblongata; pons; midbrain; reticular formation
a b c d e
Most inferior part of the brainstem.
This part of the brainstem is continuous with the spinal cord.
T or F: The medulla oblongata only has descending nerve tracts.
T or F: The medulla oblongata has both ascending and descending nerve tracts.
Def.: Descending nerve tracts on the anterior surface of the medulla oblongata.
________ fibers decussate in the medulla oblongata, which allows each half of the brain to control the ________ half of the body.
Def.: Nuclei within the medulla oblongata that help regulate balance, coordination, and modulation of sound from inner ear.
trigeminal; glossopharyngeal; vagus; accessory; hypoglossal
Name the cranial nerves with nuclei in the medulla oblongata.
Give the numbers of the cranial nerves with nuclei in the medulla oblongata.
Part of the brainstem that is superior to the medulla oblongata and inferior to the midbrain.
T or F: Pons have ascending and descending fiber tracts.
Portion of the brainstem that is the sleep center.
Def.: Anterior portion of the pons that serves as a relay between the cerebrum and cerebellum.
Give the numbers of the cranial nerve nuclei present in the pons.
trigeminal; abducens; facial; vestibulocochlear; glossophyrangyl
Give the names of the cranial nerve nuclei present in the pons.
Small part of the brainstem superior to pons.
Def.: Four nuclei that form mounds on the dorsal surface of the midbrain.
Portion of the midbrain that houses the two twin bodies (superior and inferior colliculus)
Two are found in the corpora quadrigemina.
Involved in visual reflexes; receive information from inferior colliculi, eyes, skin, and cerebrum.
Two are found in the corpora quadrigemina.
Involved in hearing.
These are part of the tegmentum, and are found in the midbrain. Aid in unconscious regulation and coordination of motor activities.
The substantia nigra of the midbrain is pigmented with _________.
The substantia nigra of the midbrain is interconnected with _____ _____ of the cerebrum.
tectum; tegmentum; substantia nigra; red nucleus; superior colliculi
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Def.: Group of nuclei scattered throughout the brainstem that controls cyclic activities such as a the sleep-wake cycle.
This part of the brain is attached the the brainstem and is posterior to the pons.
Cerebellar Peduncles: Fiber tracts int he cerebellum that communicate with other parts of the brain.
The _______ cerebellar peduncle goes to the midbrain.
The ______ cerebellar peduncle goes to the pons.
The _______ cerebellar peduncle goes to the medulla oblongata.
This portion of the brain has gray cortex and nuclei with white matter (tracts) between.
folia; white; arbor
The cortex in the cerebellum are folded in ridges called _____. _____ matter in the cerebellum resembles a tree, this is why it is called _____ vitae.
pons; medulla oblongata; folia; arbor vitae; purkinje; purkinje cell; lateral hemispheres
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These cells found in the cerebellum are the largest in the CNS.
200,000; inhibitory; nuclei
Purkinje cells receive ______ synapses, are ______, and are the only cereballar cortex neurons that send axons to the cerebellar ______.
Part of the cerebellum that controls balance and eye movements.
Part of the brain located between the brainstem and cerebrum.
thalamus; hypothalamus; pituitary gland; corpus callosum; epithalamus; subthalamus; cerebellum
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ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei = ______ function.
anterior and medial nuclei connected to limbic system = ____ modification
lateral dorsal nucleus = ______ regulation
lateral posterior and pulvinar nuclei = ________ integration
Part of the diencephalon that has two lateral portions connected by the intermediate mass.
The thalamus of the diencephalon is surrounded by the _____ ventricle.
Sensory information from spinal cord synapses in this part of the diencephalon before projecting to the cerebrum.
Part of the diencephalon that contains parts of red nuclei and substantia nigra.
part of the diencephalon that contains the Habenular nucleus and the pineal gland.
Part of the epithalamus that may influence sleepiness, regulate biological clock, and play a role in the onset of puberty.
Part of the epithalamus that causes an emotional and visceral response to odors.
Most inferior portion of the diencephalon.
The act of achieving full gratification.
Stalk inside of the hypothalamus extending from floor that connects the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland. Controls the endocrine system.
The infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to the posterior _______ gland.
Bulges on the ventral surface of the hypothalamus. Olfactory reflexes, emotional responses to odors.
The Infundibulum of the hypothalamus controls the ________ system.
Portion of the diencephalon responsible for swallowing and shivering.
Portion of the diencephalon important in regulation of mood, emotion, sexual pleasure, satiation, rage and fear.
Portion of the diencephalon that receives input from viscera, taste receptors, limbic system, nipples, external genitalia, and prefrontal cortex.
Def.: Internal organs collectively (especially those in the abdominal cavity).
Largets portion of the brain.
The cerebrum is composed of right and left ________ each of which has the following lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital temporal, and ______.
hypothalamus; mammillary body; infundibulum; pituitary gland
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longitudinal; lateral; central
Cerebrum Sulci and Fissures:
________ fissure = separates the two hemispheres.
________ fissure = separates temporal lobe from frontal and parietal lobes.
________ sulcus = separates frontal and parietal lobes
Outer surface of the cerebrum.
Folds of the cortex of the cerebrum.
Depressions of the cortex of the cerebrum.
frontal; parietal; occipital; temporal
______ lobe; a b c d
Center of the cerebrum.
The nuclei of the cerebrum are located within the _____ matter of the ________.
motor; somatic sensory
precentral gyrus = primary _____ cortex
postcentral gyrus = primary _______ _______ cortex
______ gyrus = primary motor cortex
_______ gyrus = primary somatic sensory cortex
Part of the cerebrum that sits between the precentral and postcentral gyrus.
Lobe of the cerebrum responsible for voluntary motor function, motivation, aggression, sense of smell, and mood.
Lobe of the cerebrum responsible for reception and evaluation of sensory information except smell, hearing, and vision.
Lobe of the cerebrum responsible for reception and integration of visual input.
Part of the brain responsible for reception and evaluation for smell and hearing; emory, abstract thought, judgement.
The insula is within this lobe of the brain.
Connections (fibers) within the same hemisphere.
Fibers that connect one hemisphere to the other.
Def.: White matter between the cortex and nuclei that contains association, commissural, and projection fibers.
Tracts (fibers) between the cerebrum and other parts of the brain and spinal cord.
cerebrum; diencephalon; midbrain
Basal nuclei are found in the _______, ________, and ______ of the brainstem.
Basal nuclei are responsible for _____ function and control.
thalamus; amygdaloid body; caudate nucleus; lentiform nucleus; subthalamic nucleus; substantia nigra
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The limbic system is part of the ______ and ________ of the brain.
This is found in the cerebrum and diencephalon and is responsible for basic survival functions such as memory, reproduction, and nutrition. Also responsible for emotions.
A membrane (one of 3) that envelops the brain and spinal cord. (Connective tissue membranes.)
dura mater; arachnoid mater; pia mater
Put the meninges of the brain in order from outermost to innermost.
______ space = serous fluid. ______ space = CSF.
falx; tentorium; falx
Formed by dura mater:
____ cerebri = longitudinal fissure between the two cerebral hemispheres.
_________ cerebelli = dura mater between cerebellum and cerebrum.
____ cerebelli = dura mater between the two cerebellar hemispheres.
falx cerebri; venous sinus; dura mater; arachnoid mater; pia mater
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The ______ mater meninges is a thin, wispy layer.
Space between dura and arachnoid mater; only has a small amount of serous fluid within.
Thin, delicate CT membrane closely adhered to brain. Follows external contours.
Space of web-like strands of arachnoid, blood vessels, and CSF.
Lateral ventricles are within ______ hemispheres.
The third ventricle is within the _______ of the brain.
Joins lateral ventricles with the third ventricle.
Ventricle associated with pons and medulla oblongata.
Joins the third and fourth ventricles and is continuous with the spinal cord.
interventricular foramina; third ventricle; cerebral aqueduct; fourth ventricle
a b c d
CSF is similar to serum. The only difference is CSF has less _______.
Fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord and serves as a protective cushion around the CNS.
Def.: Located in each of the four ventricles; produce CSF which fills ventricles and other parts of the brain and spinal cord.
ependymal; blood vessels
Choroid plexuses are composed of ______ cells, their support tissue, and associated _____ _______.
Endothelial; between; through
The Blood-CSF barrier contains __________ cells of capillaries attached by tight junctions. Substances do cannot pass ______ cells, they must pass ______ cells, which makes the barrier very selective.
T or F: The brain requires very little blood.
The brain receives __-__% of blood pumped by the heart.
Interruption of this to the brain can cause unconsciousness and irreversible brain damage.
high; oxygen; glucose
The brain has a ____ metabolic rate that is depedendent upon a constant supply of ______ and _______.
The brain receives blood through the internal _______ and ________ arteries.
basilar; cerebral arterial circle
The vertebral arteries join to form the _______ artery. Carotids plus basilar from the _______ _______ ______.
Circle of Willis
aka cerebral arterial circle
Circle of Willis
A circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain. (fun name!)
Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
endothelial; astrocytes; permeability
BBB: (Three characteristics determining permeability.)
________ cells (lining all capillaries) have tight junctions between them.
_______ have foot processes that influence capillary _______.
Basement membrane of endothelium.
_____-soluble substances pass through the BBB by diffusion.
_____-soluble substances pass through the BBB by mediated transport.
Nicotine, ethanol, and heroin cross the BBB by ________.
Amino acids and glucose cross the BBB by ________ transport.
All sympathetic and parasympathetic axons in the head follow branches of the ______ nerve to their target tissues.
All sympathetic and parasympathetic axons in the head follow branches or this cranial nerve to their target tissues.
Cranial nerve that sends sensory information from the carotid to the brain.
Cranial nerve that sends parasympathetic information from the brain to the carotid.
The _______ cranial nerve is primarily responsible for tongue motor function, while glossopharyngeal is one of the sensory cranial nerves for the tongue. (along with trigeminal and facial)