Cognitive Psych Test 1

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Wundt

created the first psychology research lab and started journals, text books, and degrees

Structuralism

field that focused on classifying structures of the conscious mind

Functionalism

field that focused on consciousness and behavior serve some kind of purpose

Functionalism

James; field influenced by the concept of natural selection

Structuralism

Wundt and Titchener

Structuralism

field that used the method of introspection

Behaviorism

field that focused on observable findings between the environment and behavior

Behaviorism

Watson

Conditioned Reflex

building blocks of behavior

Skinner

focused on the positive and negative consequences that shape behavior

Pavlov

focused on Dog Salivation Paradigm

Classical Conditioning

using conditioned and unconditioned responses and stimuli to create a new behavior

Operant Conditioning

when the consequences of behavior determine whether the behavior is repeated or not

Fixed Action Pattern

inborn learning; complex behaviors an animal follow through with without any practice or observation of

Critical Period

window of opportunity when a certain type of learning will be easy to learn

Chomsky

said that Behaviorism doesn't account for language

Science

process of formulating specific questions and then finding an answer for better understanding

Empirical

based on observable evidence

Tenacity

accepting something because it's been around so long

Parsimonious

least complicated explanation with the fewest assumption

Tentative

can be replaced by a better explanation

Localization

Where something in a brain occurs; damage and activation

Electrical Activation

Single cell recording, EEG, ERP

Structure Imaging Technology

CAT and MRI

Function Imaging Technology

PET, fMRI

Wernike Area

area of the brain that deals with the comprehension of words

Broca Area

area of the brain that deals with speech

EEG

electrodes put on the scalp to record neuron firing

CT

multiple x-rays combined to show slices of the brain

MRI

using hydrogen atoms and magnets to show an image

PET

measures blood flow to the brain

Cerebral Cortex

Cells that cover the outside of the brain separated into two hemispheres

Left

hemisphere for verbal processes, language, speech, reading and writing

Right

hemisphere for nonverbal processes, musical, and visual recognition

Inverse Projection Problem

recovering three dimensional images from a two dimensional projection

Luminance

amount of light hitting the eye

Frame of Reference

position of orientation of an object is always defiend relative to something else

Accommodation

the lens of the eyes changes shape to focus on an image

Convergence

as the object gets closer the eyes cross

Stereopsis

cue to distance based on the fact that each eye gets a different view

Familiar Size

experience causes us to interpret objects as the size they normally would be

Occolusion

when objects overlap the smaller one is perceived as behind the full one

Texture Gradient

greater separation and detail when objects are closer

Linear Perspective

convergence of lines assumed to be parallel but in reality provide a distant cue

Relative Height

even when similar objects are far away we assume they are the same size

Atmospheric Perspective

objects in the background look fuzzier and blueish because of dust and water particles

Computational Approach

environment information must me made sense of mentally

Ecological Approach

the environment provides the information without a strain mentally

Bottom Up Processing

starting with smaller details and working towards the larger picture

Top Down Processing

starting with the big picture then working down to the smaller details

Template Theory

comparing what you see to images in your mind

Feature-matching Theory

representation of images are because of a list of features

Object Centered Theory

mental representation of what an object looks like relative to the object itself; recognize parts

Good Continuation

points are seen as a straight or curved line instead of separate objects

Biederman's Theory

there are 36 different geons of shapes everything is made out of

What How Hypothesis

the visual system segregates what objects are and how to manipulate them

Attention

mechanism for continued processing to focus in and tune out

Inattentional Blindness

not being able to perceive things in plain sight

Continuous Task

task where there is no beginning or end with a steady stream of stimuli

Discrete Task

task where there is a noticeable beginning and end

Multiple Resource Theory

attention is composed of a number of attentional pools dedicated to a certain task

Automatic Process

process that takes few or no attentional resources and that happens without intention

Flanker Effect

stimuli that appear to the sides of a target and that participants are to ignore, affect behavior

Change Blindness

when a person fails to detect large changes in a scene

Dichotic Listening

listening to two different conversations at once, while focusing on one

Broadbent

one of the first early attentional filter model theorists

Late Attentional Theory

attention acts as a filter late in the processing system using indirect measures

Movable Filter Theory

filter than be used early or late in the processing system depending on the needs

Disjunctive Search

search where the target differs from others on just one feature and requires little or no attention

Conjunctive Search

search where target differs from other because of two or more features and requires attention

Ironic Process of Mental Control

attending to something you don't want to

Operating Process

seeking mental contents that are consistent with what you want to think about

Monitoring Process

searching for processes that are inconsistent; doesn't require attention

Vigilance

ability to maintain attention to a task in which a stimuli appear infrequently

Structural Explanation

interference between two tasks caused by competition for mental structures , not attentional resources

Parallel Performance

attention being distributed to more than one task

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