goods that benefit all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it
the relationships among the worlds governments
situation in which there is a hierarchy of power in which those at the top control those below
rewards behavior that contributes to the group and punishes behavior that pursues self interest at the expense of the group
when members of a community care enough about the interests of others to sacrifice their own interest to benefit others. Group acts according its own identity.
particular activities in a sphere of political relations
the study of the movement of armies and diplomats, the crafting of treaties and alliances, the developments and deployment of military capabilities
International Political Economy (IPE)
concerns trade and financial relations among nations
a territorial entity controlled by a government and inhabited by a population
states of people with a shared sense of national identity including a language and a culture
the set of relationships among the world's states, structured according to certain rules and patterns of interaction
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
total annual economic activity of a country
IGO's, NGO's, MNCs (multinational corporations)
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)
organizations whose members are national governments (ex. OPEC)
Non governmental organizations (NGOs)
The gap between the industrialized, relatively rich countries of the North and the relatively poor countries of the south
the attempt to halt the expansion of Soviet influence globally on several levels at once- militarily, politically, ideologically, economically
when China opposed Soviet moves toward peaceful coexistence with the United States after the Chinese communist revolution
a school of thought that explains international relations in terms of power.
Cuban Missile Crisis
ensued when the Soviet Union installed medium-range nuclear missiles in Cuba
the exercise of power by states toward each other
when superpowers supply and advise opposing factions in outside wars
school of thought that emphasizes international law, morality, and international organization, rather than power alone, as key influences on international events. Believes people are basically good.
League of Nations
forerunner to the UN created in WWI
The Munich Agreement
Britain and France agreed to this in 1983 which allowed Germany to occupy part of Czechoslovakia
the ability to get another actor to do what it would not otherwise have done
the use of geography as an element of power
a government has the right, in principle, to do whatever it wants in its own territory
lack of a central government
a situation in which actions a state takes to ensure their own security
balance of power
the general concept of one or more states' power being used to balance that of another state or group of states
shared expectations about what behavior is considered proper
generally considered the half-dozen or so most powerful states
somewhat below great powers in influence
explains patterns of international events in terms of the system structure--the international distribution of power-- rather than the internal makeup of individual states
one state's holding a preponderance of power in the international system, allowing it to single-handedly dominate the rules and arrangements by which international political and economic relations are conducted
Hegemonic stability theory
hegemony provides some order similar to a central government in the international system: reducing anarchy, deterring aggression, promoting free trade, and providing a hard currency that can be used as a world standard
coalition of states that coordinate their actions to accomplish some end
is the ease with which the members hold together an alliance
who bears the cost of the alliance
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Major Western Europe and North American Alliance
Major Soviet and Eastern European pact
U.S.-Japanese Security Treaty
Bilateral alliance between U.S and Japan
a threat to punish another actor if it takes a certain negative action
used after deterrence fails, refers to the use of force to make another actor take some action
a reciprocal process in which two (or more) states build up military capabilities in response to each other.
interest of the state itself
calculating the costs incurred by a possible action and the benefits it is likely to bring
a branch of math concerned with predicting bargaining outcomes
in which one player's gain is by definition equal to the other's loss, and non-zero-sum games, in which it is possible for both players to gain or lose
accept realist principles of unitary actors and rational action but not the pessimistic conclusions that follow
a set of rules, norms, and procedures around which the expectations of actors converge in a certain issue area (ex. arms control, international trade)
refers to the formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in an international system for the purpose of jointly opposing aggression by any actor.
the idea that democracies to not fight eachother
coalitions of people who share a common interest in the outcome of some political issue and who organize themselves to try to influence the outcome.
the range of views on foreign policy issues held by the citizens of a state.
"rally 'round the flag syndrome"
the public's increased support for government leaders during wartime, at least in the short term.
foreign policy process
how policies are arrived and implemented
in this model, decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, and then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs.
organizational process model
foreign policy decision makers generally skip the labor intensive process of identifying goals and alternative actions, relying instead of most decisions on standardized responses or standard operating procedures.
government bargaining model
model in which foreign policy decisions result from the bargaining process among various government agencies with somewhat divergent interest in the outcome.
taking in only some kinds of information
subconscious filters through which people put the information coming in about the world around them.
systematic distortions of rational calculations based not on emotional feelings but on the limitations of the human brain in making choices
justification of effort
decision makers place greater value on goals that they have put much effort into achieving.
picking the very best option
finding a satisfactory solution
theory that states that decision makers go through two phases. The editing phase where they frame the options available, and the evaluation phase where they assess the options and choose one.
refers to the tendency for groups to reach decisions without accurately assessing their consequences, because individual members tend to go along with ideas they think the others support.
an approach to IR interested in how actors define their national interests, threats to those interests, and relationships to one another
a broad approach to scholarship that pays special attention to texts and discourses. There is no single objective reality but a multiplicity of experiences and perspectives that defy easy categorization.
the hidden meanings not explicitly addressed in a text
the branch of socialism that holds that the more powerful classes oppress and exploit the less powerful by denying them their fair share of the surplus they create.
the development and implementation of peaceful strategies for settling conflicts
a peace that resolves the underlying reasons for war-- peace that is not just a cease fire but a transformation of relationships
people taking to the streets to protest against war and militarism
values the unique contributions of women as women.
see the "essential" differences in men's and women's abilities or perspectives as trivial or nonexistent--men and woman are equal
rejects the assumptions about gender made by bother difference and liberal feminists. considers differences between men and women to be important but arbitrary and flexible
J. David Singer
Realist and Traditionalist
"What counts in International Relations is not ultimate reality, but perception of reality."
Realist : ". . . a relationship between two political actors in which actor 'A' has the ability to control the mind and actions of actor 'B' . . ."
Behaviorist; Pp=(C+E+M) x (S+W)
Behaviorist; range, scope, domain
Bruce Bueno de Mesquita
"utility of war"
sanctions that almost never alone cause the target country to capitulate
sanctions with multiple sanctioners. may work for a time, but cohesion among those sanctioning is hard to maintain
"hard power" and "soft power" "Soft Power: The Means of Success in World Politics
Liberal: "On Perpetual Peace"
focus on enlightenment rationalism, civil society, individual and human rights, institutionalism and law
three baskets: security, economics and environment, human rights and informational exchange
came with the appearance of "experts
wrote "The Third Wave" is democratization cyclical?
suggest that "habits of cooperation" may build up in what amounts to diffuse reciprocation in treaties, laws, trade, and values
believe institution building must be purposeful, each successful regional institution necessitating others.
wrote "The Essense of decision". "where you stand depends on where you sit
view that disputes realisms idea of autonomy from a wide range of social interactions
wrote "you just don't understand men and women in conversation"
Behaviorist "power is the ability to shift the probability of outcomes"
Sir Halfred MacKinder
wrote "The Heartland Theory"
Wrote "The influence of the Sea power"
wrote "The influence of war"
Power resources are relevant in the long term to the extent they are fungible
uses "operational codes" as the definition of rationality
gave the characteristics of a crisis
dealt with perceptions of the enemy
Braybrooke and Lindblum
two men who outlined synoptic and incremental decision making
Rational actor model
in the search for and maintenance of power, leaders will weight the costs and benefits in order to make a decision
Hans Margenthau, Tacott Parsons, Robert Dahl, Stanley Hoffman
Ray Cline, James Deutsch, Robert Dahl, J. David Singer