pediatrics (irsc)

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American psychoanalyst created the stages of psychosocial development?

Erik Erikson

When does teething begin?

5-6 monthes of age

what is the oral hygeine for the young infant?

sips of clear water, wiping and massaging infants gums.

What can help prevent bottle mouth syndrome?

avoid putting anything but water in night-time bottles

At what age does the child have a vocabulary of about 300 words.

age 2

Rule of the thumb about the revolution of early speech?

number of words in a response corresponds with there age

What is the average apical rate of a two year old?

120

Why should you never prop a bottle for a child?

This could lead to aspiration

Schema?

knowledge structure that allows a child to mentally organize ways to behave in there immediate enviroment.

at what age does (sids) occurences peak?

2-3 monthes

Play that captures the the use of senses and motor skills?

sensorimotor play

what is the leading cause of death in infants and small children?

accidents

at what age are all 20 deciduous teeth present?

2.5

At what age can you expect a child to hopp?

3

childre meet the maturity necessary to begin toilet training at what age?

18-24 monthes

preoperational thought stage?

period of early childhood when the child focuses on the use of language as a tool to meet there needs

Toddlers need how many ounces of milk a day?

24

Deeper male voice in adolesence results from the enlargement of?

The larynx

The infant produces this substance which decreases surface tension within the alveoli and permits inflation.

surfactant

Apgar scoring is done at what time of the childs birth?

one and five minutes

Apgar score?

0-10 ( 8-10 is optimal)

what is the criteria used in apgar scoring?

HR, respiratory, muscle tone, reflex irritability, skin color

what are the characteristics of normal amniotic fluid?

pale straw colored, lanugo, watery, no strong odor, 400 ml, at 20 weeks, 1000ml at 36-38 weeks

hydramnios?

excessive amount of amniotic fluid

oligohydramnios?

less than 300 ml of amniotic fluid in third trimester

What should you suction first when using the bulb syringe?

mouth at the corners. nasal passages one nostril at a time

Most newborns need bathing how often?

every other day

when bathing newborns you should rinse shampoo well to prevent what?

cradle cap

how long should you spnge bathe a newborn?

7-10 days until umbillical cord comes off

How often should you clense the penis after a gomco or morgan clamped circumcision?

q 4hrs with warm water apply petroleum jelly gauze

what is the length of time for breast feeding?

10-15 minutes per breast

How long can breast milk be safely stored in the refrigerator?

24-48 hours

how often should the newborn be burped after breast feeding?

every 0.5 to 1 ounce of milk

After feeding which side should the baby be positioned to prevent regurgitation?

right side

which tests should be performed on all newborns?

phenylketonuria, biotinidase and thyroid testing

milia?

small white spots on the nose and chin, a result of occluded sebaceous glands

newborn rash?

( erythema toxicum neonatorum ) elevated hive like rash, small whte vessels

telangiectatic nevi?

Stork bites! flat pink marks on eyelids, nose or nape of neck

mongolian spots?

increased pogmentation in the lumbar dorsal area bluish black in color and more common in dark skinned people

nevus flammeus?

port wine stain, often seen on the face. angioma requires medical attention to remove.

strawberry birthmarks?

nevus vasculosus, capillary hemangiomas, eventually disappear early in childhood

acrocyanosis?

hands and feet may appear slightly blue caused by poor peripheral circulation lasting 7-10 days, more apparent when the infant becomes cold.

harlequin sign?

half of the newborns body appears red and they other half pale as a result of vasomotor disturbance. vessels dilate and others constrict.

icterus neonatorum?

deposits of bile pigments as seen in jaundice. ( abnormal during the first 24 hours )

vernix caseosa?

yellowish white cream cheese like substance protecting the infants skin against amniotic fluid.

fontanelles?

broad area of soft spots consisting of connective tissue

anterior fontanelle?

large and diamond shaped and closes at 18 monthes

posterior fontanelle?

small triangular shape and closes at 2 monthes

molding?

overlapping of the bones skull, and the head appears elongated

caput succedaneum?

edema in the soft tissue of the scalp seen in molding

cephalhematoma?

caused by bleeding within the periosteum of a cranial bone

epsteins pearls?

small white nodules that may be observed on the hard palate

a fungal infection may be acquired during passage through the birth canal if the mother is infected with?

candida albicans

two types of antifungal medications used for thrush?

nystatin, gentian violet

opthalmia neonatorum?

infection of the neonates eyes usually resulting from gnorrheal when passing thru the birth canal

strabismus?

crossed eyes

nystagmus?

abnormal motion of the eyes

newborns are born with which eye condition?

nearsighted and can see objects best at eight to ten inches

low set ears in newborns may indicate what?

a chromosomal disorder

the umbilicus is whitish blue gray with which 3 vessels?

one vein and two arteries

the umbillicus contains a gelatinous tissue called?

whartons jelly

A two vessel cord may indicate what?

congenital anomalies

when does the umbillical cord fall off?

10-14 days

when should the cord clamp be removed?

24 hours if it is dry

pseudomenstuation?

discharge of blood tinged mucus from the vagina, may occur in response to maternal hormones

gynecomastia?

enlarged breasts of the newborn, result of maternal hormones

cryptorchidism?

testicles that are not descended in preterm infants

syndactyly?

malformation of digits commonly seen as webbing or fusion of two more digits

polydactyly?

extra digits

simian line in the palm of the hand may indicate which chromosomal disorder?

down syndrome

conception or fertilization

development is considered a lifelong process that begins when?

growth from head to toe

cephalocaudal?

growth from the center outward

proximodistal?

the continuous replacement of cells,tissues and fluids

The changes we undergo throughout life include?

genetics

Growth patterns are controlled by what?

increase of size in whole or in parts

growth?

function from simple to complex

development?

chromosomes

the blueprint for all inherited traits is contained in?

23 pairs= 46

After fertilization the zygote contains how many chromosomes?

chromosomes

threadlike structures in the nucleus of the cell that function in the transmission of genetic information?

familly

What is the basic unit os society?

substance that interferes with normal prenatal development causing one or more developmental abnormalities

teratogen?

cohabitation

social contract familly is also referrred to as?

unequal-parents attempt to control children with strict rigid rules

autocratic familly pattern?

adult male assumes dominant role

patriarchal familly pattern?

adult female assumes dominant role

matriarchal familly pattern?

wedding till birth of first child

establishment stage?

last stage of life cycle

senescence stage?

trust vs mistrust

infancy developmental task?

autonomy vs shame and doubt

toddler developmental task?

initiative vs guilt

preschool developmental task?

industry vs inferiority

school age developmental task?

identity vs role confusion

adolescence developmental task?

intimacy vs isolation

young adulthood developmental task?

generativity vs stagnation

middle adulthood developmental task?

ego integrity vs dispair

late adulthood developmental task?

(sensorimotor ) senses, motor abilities and reflexes, schema, object permanence,mental representation, goal directed behavior

cognitive develoment birth to two years?

( preoperational ) egocentric thinking, trial and error, time is present time only, symbols represent objects, intuitive thinking, imagination, gradually becomes less egocentric

cognitive development 2 to 6 years?

( concrete operational ) realistic views, improved memory, multitask, cause and effect, behavior outcomes, conversationa and number classification

cognitive development for 7 to 11 years?

( formal operational ) scientific problem solving, past, present, future, hypothetic situations, interest in ethics, politics, social and moral issues

cognitive development for 12 plus

two or three words, sounds of animals

normal language for a one year old?

two or three word phrases, 300 words, i me and you

normal language for a two year old?

four or five word sentences, 900 words, who, what and where

normal language for a three year old?

1500-2100 words, complete sentences

normal language for a 4-5 year old?

3000 words, comprehends if because and why

normal language for a 6-7 year old?

respiratory system, cerebral cortex, mouth and nasal cavities

speech requires intact physiologic functioning of what?

intact and discriminating auditory apparatus, intelligence, need to communicate, stimulation

language requires what?

school age

peer relationships become significant at what age?

adolescence

at what age is considered the transitional period?

sex linked, inherited disorder, skelatol muscle wasting, most severe and common, and the onset begins between 2 and 4 years old

duchenne's muscular dystrophy?

positioned on all fours and uses hands to walk up thighs

gowers sign?

rarely live past 20, resulting from cardiac or respiratory complications

what is the prognosis or duchennes muscular dystrophy?

electromyogram, elevated serum creatine, elevated aspartate aminotransferase (emg, cpk, ast) and muscle biopsy

what are the diagnostic tests used for duchennes muscular dystrophy?

a perception that the practices of ones own culture are superior to others

ethnocentrism?

immunizing agent from detoxified tetanus toxin that produces an antigenic response to the body

tetanus toxoid?

engagement, establishment, expectant, parenthood,disengagement, senescence

what are the stages of familly development?

negotiation, compromise, and growth

The democratic familly patern favors what three things?

type of hemolytic anemia

erythroblastosis fetalis?

maternal blood measures the number of maternal antibodies

indirect coombs test?

after delivery, on infant blood to determine antibody coated RBC's

direct coombs test?

source of heat unique to neonates that is capable of greater thermogenic activity than ordinary fat---found around adrenals, kidneys neck, scapulae, and behind the sternum

brown fat?

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