Name and describe the two major types of igneous rocks..
Intrusive- forms underground by magma
Extrusive- forms above ground by lava
Explain the four different classifications (textures) of igneous rocks...
coarse-grained: cools slowly forming big crystals
fine-grained: cools quickly forming small crystals
glassy-texture: not enough time to grow crystals, really fast cooling
porphyritic-texture: different rates of cooling and different sizes
What are the processes that form sedimentary rocks...
weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation.
Explain the two main groups that sedimentary rocks are divided into...
clastic- have many different minerals in them and are grouped according to their size.
chemical or biochemical- when dissolved substances precipate or seperate from water solution
How does conglomerate form?
rounded pebbles are cemmented together.
What would ripple marks in sedimentary rocks suggest?
The rock may have formed along a beach or stream bed.
Where do most metamorphic processes take place?
At elevated pressure and temp. which is a few kilometers below earths surface and the upper mantle.
Explain the two types of metamorphism...
contact metamorphism- hot magma moves into rock.
regional metamorphism- results in large scale deformation and high grade metamorphism.
Discuss the three agents of metamorphism...
heat melts, pressure causes space between minerals to close, and hydrothermal solution dissolves the original minerals and deposits new ones. All at the same time.
Name and discuss the two types of metamorphic rock.
Foliated metamorphic rock have bands and non foliated don't.
Where does heat from contact metamorphism come from?
Earth's internal heat.
The foliated metamorphic rock that forms when sedimentary rock shale is subjected to relatively love temp and pressure is...
Where are fossils only found?
Where does the energy that drives the rock cycle come from?
the sun and earth's internal heat.
What happens during metamorphism?
Extreme heat and pressure cause minerals and essentially the rocks to change.