6th Grade Social Studies Unabridged Terms

354 terms by mjarzewiak Plus

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This is the complete set of people, places, and other terms related to 6th grade social studies/world cultures. Credit goes to Ms. Cowart for creating the original gloassary from which this was adopted.

Aboriginal

native to a region; describes people inhabiting a land before the arrival of colonists

Aborigines

indigenous people of Australia

Acid rain

rain polluted with chemicals

Agrarian

a term describing a society that is based on agriculture

Allied Powers

Britain, France, Russia; those nations involved in World War I that were led by Great Britain , Russia, and France; the United States later joined the Allied Powers

Allies

countries / nations who are friends and support one another

Amazon River

A massive river in South America; more water drains out of the Amazon than out of any other river on Earth

Andes Mountains

The mountain range along the western side of South America more than 5,000 miles long, and home to the highest mountains in the Western Hemisphere

Annex

to add territory; to take over a piece of another nation's land

Arable

land that is able to be farmed

Anti-Semitism

prejudice against Jewish people

Archipelago

a chain of islands

Arctic

the region around the North Pole

Aristocracy, aristocratic

having to do with royalty/monarchy

Armistice

a temporary halt in fighting; a truce

Astronomy

the study of stars and their positions

Atacama Desert

a desert region on the coast of northern Chile, sparsely inhabited, but rich in minerals

Atahualpa

leader of the Incas (known as "Sapa Inca"). During the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro captured him and used him to control the Inca empire before executing him.

Authoritarian

a word that describes a political system in which people of a country must obey the ruling power

Autocratic or Autocracy

government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizen has little, if any, role in the government (example: Cuba). Most dictators maintain their position through inheritance of military power (fear, violence). People who try to speak out against the government are often silenced through the use of power.

Ayers Rock

a giant stone monolith in Australia's Northern Territory; one of the country's most famous natural features

Axis Powers

an alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan that fought against the Allies during World War II

Aztec

native people of central Mexico whose civilization was at its height at the time of the Spanish conquest in the early 16th century

Barter

to exchange, or trade, one good for another

Battle of Stalingrad

World War II battle considered to be the bloodiest in human history; it last from 1942 to 1943

Bering Land Bridge

a narrow area of land that once joined Siberia to Alaska

Berlin Wall

a wall in Germany that separated East and West Berlin from 1961 to 1989

Bicameral

a legislature with two branches

British Commonwealth

a voluntary association of independent nations and dependent territories linked by historical ties as part of the former British empire, and cooperation on matters of mutual concern like economics and trade.

British North America Trade Act

a law passed in 1867 under which Canadian colonies united to form a new country, governed by a new constitution

Cabinet

a group of people appointed by a president or prime minister to give advice and help run the government

Canadian Shield

a plateau region of eastern Canada extending from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River northward to the Arctic Ocean

Capital goods

equipment used by a company to produce other goods

Capitalism

an economic system in which private owners control the production of goods and profit

Caribbean Sea

a large body of water in the western Atlantic Ocean, to the south bordered by South America, to the west bordered by Central America, and to the north by Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic

Cartography

the making of maps and charts

Catholic

this word actually means "universal", but when capitalized, refers to the Roman Catholic church. Roman Catholics were some of the first Christians.

Central Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, when they fought against the Allied Powers during World War I.

Chancellor

chief executive in Germany

Chernobyl

a city in north central Ukraine where in 1986 a large Nuclear Power Plant exploded during stress testing causing the leakage of massive amounts of radiation

Chief executive

the #1 person in charge of the country; we call ours PRESIDENT

Christopher Columbus

believed that the Bahamas were part of Asia; was an Italian sailor who thought that if the world was round instead of flat, then you should be able to sail to India to buy spices by going west instead of east. Convinced the king and queen of Spain to give him 3 ships, let him try to prove that he was right. He did not get to India, he did find the islands of the Caribbean including present day Haiti

Clandestine

to meet in secret

Cold war

began in 1945, period of distrust between Soviet Union and its former allies in the West, particularly the United States; Germany was divided into two parts, East Germany and West Germany

Colonization

to form a colony, to settle a colony

Colony

a foreign area controlled by a country and contributing to its wealth; any people or territory separated from, but subject to, a ruling power

Columbian Exchange

the widespread exchange of agricultural goods, livestock, slave labor, communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that occurred after 1492.

Command economy

an economy that is planned and controlled by the central government

Communism

an economic and political system in which the government owns all the businesses, and citizens have limited personal freedoms

Concentration camps

prisons where civilians, political prisoners, and sometimes prisoners of war were held under harsh conditions

Confederation

voluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation (example: European Union); voluntary association of states in which individual states hold more power than the central government

Conquistador

a conqueror, especially one of the 16th century Spanish soldiers who defeated the Indian civilizations of Mexico, Central America, and Peru.

Constitution

document written to describe the way a government of a country will be organized

Commonwealth of Nations

weak association of member countries once part of the British Empire; also called the British Commonwealth

Communist

describes a government that owns or controls most farms and businesses

Confederation

voluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation (Example: European Union)

Conquistador

a conqueror from Spain, an explorer who went to new countries; a conqueror, especially one of the 16th century Spanish soldiers who defeated the Indian civilizations of Mexico, Central America and Peru

Constitution

document written to describe the way the government of a country will be organized; a document of basic laws that govern a country

Constitutional monarchy

a form of government in which the power of the king or queen is limited by a constitution

Consume

to buy, to use up, to purchase something that is for sale.

Contaminated

poisoned, food not safe to eat, a place not safe to live in; could make a person sick, even kill them

Cook, Captain James

claimed Australia for Great Britain; in 1770's had a ship named Endeavor

Coral Sea

a body of water off the east coast of Australia, home o the Great Barrier Reef

Cortez/Cortes

conquistador that Montezuma welcomed because he mistakenly thought Cortez was a god from a legend in their religion. Cortez was looking for gold and riches and was successful in overtaking the Aztec people.

Coup

a French word that means to take over a government, to militarily overthrow the present government (pronounced KOO with no "p" sound)

Coup d'etat

a military takeover of a government (pronounced KOO-DAY-TAH)

Crusades

wars fought in the Middle East over land that was holy to Christians and Muslims; military expeditions sent by different Popes (leaders of the Catholic Church) to capture the Holy Land

Cultural diffusion

the spread of language and traditions from one group to another

Culture

the way of life of a group of people; includes language, customs, traditions, beliefs, and religious practices

Currency

the type of money a country uses; a system of money

Currency exchange

without a system of exchanging currencies it would be very difficult to conduct international trade; exchange rates provide a procedure for determining the value of one country's currency in the terms of another country's currency.

Customs

rules of behavior that people follow within a culture

Cyrillic alphabet

an alphabet that is used by Slavic languages (includes Russian). These Slavic languages that use the Cyrillic alphabet are in central and eastern Europe.

Czars

another spelling of TSARS: what the king/emperor was called in Russia

Czechoslavakia

a country in Europe that doesn't exist any more

D-Day

the name given to the Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Western Europe; it occurred on June 6, 1944

Deciduous

trees that shed their leaves in the fall

Deficit

when a governing body spends more money than it brings in

Deforestation

the act or process of removing trees from or clearing a forest

Demand

how many people want the goods available and what they are willing to pay for them

Democracy / democratic

political system in which a country's people elect their leaders and rule by majority; a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. (Examples: United Kingdom, Germany, Mexico, Brazil, Canada, Australia)

Denomination

a sect or group within a religion

Densely populated

a place where a lot of people live; for example, a city is densely populated, farmland in the country is not densely populated

Depression

buying and selling almost stops; wages fall; banks close; business slows; inflation rises; farmers lose land

Dictator

someone who rules by fear or force, they have all the power, they don't share power with anybody, has complete rule

Dictatorship

a form of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of one leader

Dissent

means to disagree with

Dissenter

a person who disagrees with (for example) the government or it's leader

Diversity

a variety of different races, ethnic backgrounds, religious beliefs

Domestic

describes industries or businesses that are in OUR country; foreign describes industries or businesses in countries other than our own

Dominant

the most powerful, the strongest, the most type of people

Dreaming

the time of creation in the Australian Aboriginal religion

Economic depression

buying and selling almost stops; wages fall; banks close; business slows; inflation rises; farmers lose land

Economic system

the way a country decides what goods will be produced, how they will be produced, and who will consume them

Economy

the way in which people m a erpson eet their needs through the production, distribution, and the use of goods and services

Elevation

how how a place is above sea level

Embargos

prohibit trade with other nations; they bar a foreign nation's imports or ban exports to that nation or both; a ban on trade with another country for a political reason

Emissions

the smoke that comes out smokestacks of factories, tailpipes of cars

Empire

a group of nations or people ruled over by a sovereign/monarch (emperor/ empress, king/queen, etc.)

England

used to be it's own country by itself; now part of Great Britain which is part of United Kingdom

English Channel

a body of water separating France and the United Kingdom

Entrepreneurs

one who risks his or her own money, time, ideas, and energy to start and run a business; a person who is willing to take a risk to organize and operate a new business

Ethnic

means having to do with race or culture

Ethnic group

people in a region who share ancestry, language, and culture

Euro

the currency of the European Union. One result of the EU is the creation of the EURO. Just as the United States has dollars ($), the European countries have their own currencies. The euro is the currency of most of the EU. Member countries can choose to give up their own currencies and exchange them for euros.

European Union (EU)

established in 1990s; main goal is to strengthen the economic, political, and defense ties of member nations; it's goal is to create a singles European currency; also it is a system to remove tariff barriers and open trade between countries. An organization, evolved from the European Economic Community, that created one economic market out of the member nations' economies

Exclusion zone

the area around Chernobyl, Ukraine where no one was allowed to live, travel, or "be' after the nuclear accident

Executive

branch of government that includes the head of state (president, premier, prime minister, etc)

Expedition

trip that's purpose is to explore

Export

a product that one country sells to another

Fascism

a totalitarian government that has complete control over its citizens' political, economic, religious, and cultural activities

Federal

1. national level, government having to do with the entire country, not just the state; 2. characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities. (Examples: Australia, Germany, Russia, Canada, Brazil, and Mexico)

Federal parliamentary democracy

a system in which a central government is controlled by a democratically elected Parliament, such as in Australia

Federal system

a system of government in which the national and state governments share power

Fifteenth century

the years from 1400 to 1499

Foreign

describes industries or businesses in countries other than our own; describes industries or businesses that are in OUR country

Fossil fuel

gasoline or other fuel made from oil deposits (from dead dinosaurs!)

Free enterprise system

another name is "market economy" or laissez-faire

Free trade

trade between nations without tariffs or other trade barriers

Free-trade zone

An arrangement between countries that creates a region where trade is conducted without tariffs or taxes on trade.

French and Indian War

the North American phase of a war between France and Britain to control colonial territory

Fuhrer

Hitler's title in German, meaning "leader"

Genoa

city in Italy

Genocide

the planned killing of a race of people; Hitler tried to do this with Jews in WWII

Germanic languages

the come from German languages; English is a Germanic language.

Glasnost

Russian term meaning "political openness"

Global warming

the gradual increase in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide and pollutants; climate change

Goods and services

things (products) people will buy or what people will pay others to do for them (haircut, doctor visit, lawn cutting)

Gorbachev, Mikhail

head of the Soviet Union

Government

the system a country uses to make laws and run the country

Governor

leader of the government of a territory or state

Great Barrier Reef

the world's largest coral reef, located off the coast of Queensland, Australia, in the Coral Sea

Great Britain

includes England, Scotland, Wales; each of these used to be individual countries

Great Depression

a global economic downturn that started in 1929 in the United States and soon spread into Europe. connected to US banks; wages fell; banks closed; business slowed; inflation rose, farmers lost land

Great Lakes

five lakes in central North America; the lakes are Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario

Great Victoria Desert

a desert in South and Western Australia named after British Queen Victoria

Great War

what World War I (World War One) used to be called

Gross domestic product (GDP)

the combined value of the goods and services produced in a country in each year; a total amount of goods and services produced in a country

Guerrilla

Spanish for "little war"; a person who engages in irregular warfare. GUER is base word for WAR in Spanish; member of a band of soldiers that harrass the enemy

Guerrilla warfare

small, mobile groups of nongovernment soldiers using tactics such as ambush, sabotage, spies, and deception to fight a larger government force such as an army or police force

Gulf Stream

moves warm water along the coast of North America, crosses the Atlantic and warms Ireland and western coasts of England

Hacienda

a ranch where farming and cattle ranching take place

Hajj

a pilgrimage by Muslims to Mecca

Holocaust

Hitler's systematic killing of every Jew (man, woman, and child) under Nazi rule; mass murder of Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, and dissenters by the Nazi's during World War II

House of Commons

part of Parliament in the United Kingdom; one of two governing bodies in the British Parliament; members are elected by the people

House of Lords

part of Parliament in the United Kingdom; one of two governing bodies in the British Parliament; members are appointed

Hudson Bay

an inlet in northeast Canada that is 850 miles long

Human capital

education and training; workers of a business or country including their education, training, skills, and health; labor; the value that most people bring to the marketplace

Hydroelectric power

electricity that is made from a force of moving water

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