Britain, France, Russia; those nations involved in World War I that were led by Great Britain , Russia, and France; the United States later joined the Allied Powers
A massive river in South America; more water drains out of the Amazon than out of any other river on Earth
The mountain range along the western side of South America more than 5,000 miles long, and home to the highest mountains in the Western Hemisphere
a desert region on the coast of northern Chile, sparsely inhabited, but rich in minerals
leader of the Incas (known as "Sapa Inca"). During the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro captured him and used him to control the Inca empire before executing him.
a word that describes a political system in which people of a country must obey the ruling power
Autocratic or Autocracy
government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizen has little, if any, role in the government (example: Cuba). Most dictators maintain their position through inheritance of military power (fear, violence). People who try to speak out against the government are often silenced through the use of power.
a giant stone monolith in Australia's Northern Territory; one of the country's most famous natural features
an alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan that fought against the Allies during World War II
native people of central Mexico whose civilization was at its height at the time of the Spanish conquest in the early 16th century
Battle of Stalingrad
World War II battle considered to be the bloodiest in human history; it last from 1942 to 1943
a voluntary association of independent nations and dependent territories linked by historical ties as part of the former British empire, and cooperation on matters of mutual concern like economics and trade.
British North America Trade Act
a law passed in 1867 under which Canadian colonies united to form a new country, governed by a new constitution
a group of people appointed by a president or prime minister to give advice and help run the government
a plateau region of eastern Canada extending from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River northward to the Arctic Ocean
a large body of water in the western Atlantic Ocean, to the south bordered by South America, to the west bordered by Central America, and to the north by Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic
this word actually means "universal", but when capitalized, refers to the Roman Catholic church. Roman Catholics were some of the first Christians.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, when they fought against the Allied Powers during World War I.
a city in north central Ukraine where in 1986 a large Nuclear Power Plant exploded during stress testing causing the leakage of massive amounts of radiation
believed that the Bahamas were part of Asia; was an Italian sailor who thought that if the world was round instead of flat, then you should be able to sail to India to buy spices by going west instead of east. Convinced the king and queen of Spain to give him 3 ships, let him try to prove that he was right. He did not get to India, he did find the islands of the Caribbean including present day Haiti
began in 1945, period of distrust between Soviet Union and its former allies in the West, particularly the United States; Germany was divided into two parts, East Germany and West Germany
a foreign area controlled by a country and contributing to its wealth; any people or territory separated from, but subject to, a ruling power
the widespread exchange of agricultural goods, livestock, slave labor, communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that occurred after 1492.
an economic and political system in which the government owns all the businesses, and citizens have limited personal freedoms
prisons where civilians, political prisoners, and sometimes prisoners of war were held under harsh conditions
voluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation (example: European Union); voluntary association of states in which individual states hold more power than the central government
a conqueror, especially one of the 16th century Spanish soldiers who defeated the Indian civilizations of Mexico, Central America, and Peru.
Commonwealth of Nations
weak association of member countries once part of the British Empire; also called the British Commonwealth
voluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation (Example: European Union)
a conqueror from Spain, an explorer who went to new countries; a conqueror, especially one of the 16th century Spanish soldiers who defeated the Indian civilizations of Mexico, Central America and Peru
document written to describe the way the government of a country will be organized; a document of basic laws that govern a country
a form of government in which the power of the king or queen is limited by a constitution
poisoned, food not safe to eat, a place not safe to live in; could make a person sick, even kill them
conquistador that Montezuma welcomed because he mistakenly thought Cortez was a god from a legend in their religion. Cortez was looking for gold and riches and was successful in overtaking the Aztec people.
a French word that means to take over a government, to militarily overthrow the present government (pronounced KOO with no "p" sound)
wars fought in the Middle East over land that was holy to Christians and Muslims; military expeditions sent by different Popes (leaders of the Catholic Church) to capture the Holy Land
the way of life of a group of people; includes language, customs, traditions, beliefs, and religious practices
without a system of exchanging currencies it would be very difficult to conduct international trade; exchange rates provide a procedure for determining the value of one country's currency in the terms of another country's currency.
an alphabet that is used by Slavic languages (includes Russian). These Slavic languages that use the Cyrillic alphabet are in central and eastern Europe.
the name given to the Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Western Europe; it occurred on June 6, 1944
Democracy / democratic
political system in which a country's people elect their leaders and rule by majority; a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. (Examples: United Kingdom, Germany, Mexico, Brazil, Canada, Australia)
a place where a lot of people live; for example, a city is densely populated, farmland in the country is not densely populated
buying and selling almost stops; wages fall; banks close; business slows; inflation rises; farmers lose land
someone who rules by fear or force, they have all the power, they don't share power with anybody, has complete rule
describes industries or businesses that are in OUR country; foreign describes industries or businesses in countries other than our own
buying and selling almost stops; wages fall; banks close; business slows; inflation rises; farmers lose land
the way a country decides what goods will be produced, how they will be produced, and who will consume them
the way in which people m a erpson eet their needs through the production, distribution, and the use of goods and services
prohibit trade with other nations; they bar a foreign nation's imports or ban exports to that nation or both; a ban on trade with another country for a political reason
a group of nations or people ruled over by a sovereign/monarch (emperor/ empress, king/queen, etc.)
used to be it's own country by itself; now part of Great Britain which is part of United Kingdom
one who risks his or her own money, time, ideas, and energy to start and run a business; a person who is willing to take a risk to organize and operate a new business
the currency of the European Union. One result of the EU is the creation of the EURO. Just as the United States has dollars ($), the European countries have their own currencies. The euro is the currency of most of the EU. Member countries can choose to give up their own currencies and exchange them for euros.
European Union (EU)
established in 1990s; main goal is to strengthen the economic, political, and defense ties of member nations; it's goal is to create a singles European currency; also it is a system to remove tariff barriers and open trade between countries. An organization, evolved from the European Economic Community, that created one economic market out of the member nations' economies
the area around Chernobyl, Ukraine where no one was allowed to live, travel, or "be' after the nuclear accident
branch of government that includes the head of state (president, premier, prime minister, etc)
a totalitarian government that has complete control over its citizens' political, economic, religious, and cultural activities
1. national level, government having to do with the entire country, not just the state; 2. characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities. (Examples: Australia, Germany, Russia, Canada, Brazil, and Mexico)
Federal parliamentary democracy
a system in which a central government is controlled by a democratically elected Parliament, such as in Australia
describes industries or businesses in countries other than our own; describes industries or businesses that are in OUR country
An arrangement between countries that creates a region where trade is conducted without tariffs or taxes on trade.
French and Indian War
the North American phase of a war between France and Britain to control colonial territory
the gradual increase in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide and pollutants; climate change
Goods and services
things (products) people will buy or what people will pay others to do for them (haircut, doctor visit, lawn cutting)
Great Barrier Reef
the world's largest coral reef, located off the coast of Queensland, Australia, in the Coral Sea
a global economic downturn that started in 1929 in the United States and soon spread into Europe. connected to US banks; wages fell; banks closed; business slowed; inflation rose, farmers lost land
five lakes in central North America; the lakes are Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario
Gross domestic product (GDP)
the combined value of the goods and services produced in a country in each year; a total amount of goods and services produced in a country
Spanish for "little war"; a person who engages in irregular warfare. GUER is base word for WAR in Spanish; member of a band of soldiers that harrass the enemy
small, mobile groups of nongovernment soldiers using tactics such as ambush, sabotage, spies, and deception to fight a larger government force such as an army or police force
moves warm water along the coast of North America, crosses the Atlantic and warms Ireland and western coasts of England
Hitler's systematic killing of every Jew (man, woman, and child) under Nazi rule; mass murder of Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, and dissenters by the Nazi's during World War II
House of Commons
part of Parliament in the United Kingdom; one of two governing bodies in the British Parliament; members are elected by the people
House of Lords
part of Parliament in the United Kingdom; one of two governing bodies in the British Parliament; members are appointed
education and training; workers of a business or country including their education, training, skills, and health; labor; the value that most people bring to the marketplace
a strategy by which a state tries to put other states under its political or economic control
a group of people of highland Peru who established an empire from northern Ecuador to central Chile before the Spanish conquest
the change from an economy based on farming and handmade goods to an economy based on factories and machines
countries that depend more on manufacturing than farming; generally have a higher standard of living
a monotheistic religion practiced by Muslims; fastest growing religion in Europe, holy book is the Koran (also spelled Quran); believers are called Muslims; made up of two groups, Sunnis and Shiites, believe Muhammed was last of prophets, believe in one God called ALLAH, trip to Mecca once in a lifetime, prayer five times a day, giving to charity, fasting during month of Ramadan
a monotheistic religion practiced by Jewish people; oldest of three main religions in Europe, believers are called Jews/Jewish, holy book is Torah, Talmud written version of Oral Law, Abraham was founder/prophet, Jews in Europe were nearly wiped out by Hitler and Nazi Germany
a country that is surrounded by land on all sides, no seas, oceans, bays, gulf, or coastline around any of it's borders
colonists who remained loyal to the British during the American Revolution; many later settled in Canada
the principal landmass of a continent; part of a country that is on a continent, not an island
the process of making goods and items with machines, usually in factories; making things so they can be sold; for example, factories are where manufacturing takes place (they make/assemble cars or other products... it's a "manufacturing plant")
a climate dominated by the ocean. Because of the moderating effect of water, sites having this climate are considered relatively mild.
a person can start any legal business and charge any price; the production and distribution of goods owned by private individuals and or corporations; the people*not the government- own land, factories, and businesses; companies produce goods of their choice and consumers decide whether to buy the goods; competition is found in a market economy; an economy in which changes in price guide what and how goods and services will be produced, distributed, and consumed; a capitalistic economy
sea found south of Europe, but north of Africa; large body of water that separates Europe from Africa
a person of mixed Native American and Spanish (or Portuguese) ancestry; from the Spanish word for "mixed"
an economic system that allows for the simultaneous operation of publicly and privately owned enterprises; mixture of pure market and pure command; a combination of privately-owned industry and government control
a king or queen, emperor or empress, czar or czarina; usually get their "job" by inheriting it because of their birth
a government led by a king or queen; territory ruled by a king or queen who has total power to govern
Montezuma / Moctezuma
leader of the Aztec people, their "king"; allowed Cortes to come into their city, welcomed him at first because he thought he was a god... until he figured out that Cortes was really a greedy conquistador, but by then it was too late.
(sometimes spelled Moslem) one of the 3 main religions in Europe, Muslims believe in the religion called Islam
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
an alliance of the United States, Canada, and its western European allies; formed after World War II
"gifts" of nature, including forests, fertile soil, water; a material source of wealth, such as timber, fresh water, or a mineral deposit, that occurs in a natural state and has economic value
a shortened name for National Socialist German Workers' Party; the political party of Adolf Hitler
beliefs of the Nazi Party; Germans felt betrayed by Treaty of Versailles; Nazis came to power; Hitler promised to break Treaty of Versailles, rebuild the military, and reclaim lost territory
a resource that cannot be replaced by nature; for example, oil is a nonrenewable resource
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
an arrangement signed in 1993 that allows free trade among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
an organization formed in 1949 in Washington, D.C., made up of the countries of the Atlantic Pact and others, for the purpose of collective defense against aggression
a place or building equipped for making observations of astronomical or meteorological objects or events; especially one equipped with a powerful telescope for observing stars and planets
a form of government in which a small, unelected group controls the country and denies power to citizens
government by the few, sometimes a government in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen has a very limited role. A small group exercises control. Communist countries are mostly oligarchies. The citizen has a very limited role in government.
refers to the difference in the amount of time and effort to make one thing instead of another
Organization of American States (OAS)
an international organization formed in 1948; promotes economic, military, and cultural cooperation among its members; which include almost all the independent states of the Western Hemisphere
a term used during World war II to refer to areas of the Pacific Ocean where the fighting occurred
the legislature in which elected representatives choose a country's leader from members of the political party with the most votes
form of democratic government in which prime minister is head of legislature; used in the United Kingdom and many other countries; type of democratic government where citizens elect MPs who choose a prime minister as chief executive; a system of government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature. May have a Prime Minister elected by the legislature. (Example: United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Germany)
a piece of land nearly surrounded by water but connected to a larger land body; part of the land that sticks out into the water, being surrounded by water on three sides
a Russian word that means "social restructuring", used by Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union
a chemical used in fertilizer, pesticides, toothpaste, detergents, and explosives that can pollute water
factories, machines, technologies, buildings and property needed by businesses to operate
was a Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Incan Empire, and founder of Lima, the modern-day capital of the Republic of Peru. He was responsible for capturing Atahualpa, leading to the downfall of the Incan empire in Latin America.
how the people of a country are spread out across the land. For example, cities (urban areas) have a high population; country/farmland (rural areas) have a lower population, desert areas and frozen lands have a lower population
describes how many people live in a certain unit (square mile, for example); tells information about population distribution (see above definition)
a city that is by an ocean, river, bay, or other body of water, that allows ships to come to/from the city for trade and transporation
a form of government in which the executive branch of the national government is headed by the president, while the legislative branch is headed by Congress; used in the United States; type of democratic government where citizens elect members of the legislature and also the chief executive, known as the president; a system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature (Example: Mexico and Brazil)
the chief or leading member of a parliamentary government; the head of state in a parliamentary system of democracy, responsible for running the day to day operations of government; the head of the government in Canada and United Kingdom
Prince Henry the Navigator
Son of the king of Portugal, he wanted to send ships south to Africa because he wanted a route around Africa to the Asian markets. He also wanted to spread Christianity.
(1) in a centralized command economy, being told by government what and how much to produce in a certain time; (2) a limit placed on the number of imports that may enter a country. Put a legal limit on the amount that can be imported, creating shortages which cause prices to rise. A quota benefits domestic producers in the same way a tariff does, but the additional money expended on foreign goods goes to the foreign producers, not the domestic government. PLACES LIMITS ON NUMBER OF IMPORTS that may enter a country.
energy (can come from the sun or nuclear material) can be used to power things, but too much can be dangerous to human health
things that have been exposed to radiation, like when the nuclear plant explosion at Chernobyl, Ukraine in 1986
the purchase of a new home by a person or the purchase of physical capital by a business
those that can be replaced by nature; for example, trees are a renewable resource; when used, it can be regrown, or more of it can be made. For example, lumber (wood) is a renewable resources because we can grow more trees. Oil is NOT a renewable resource because once it is used up, more cannot be made or grown.
a form of government in which the citizens elect representatives to act on their behalf; a democratic form of government in which the citizens elect representatives to make government decisions
to bring two parts back together that had gotten separated in the past; when East Germany and West Germany were brought back together and once again made into one country
Role of citizen
whether or not the citizen can vote, or has the right of free speech to express their opinions to their government
some of the first Christians, their leader is the pope, their church is headquartered in The Vatican, which is located inside Rome, Italy.
derived from Latin (the language of the Roman Empire), includes Latin , Italian, French
(1917) two part revolt that resulted in the overthrow of the czar and the Communist take-over of Russia; transformed Russia from autocracy into the Soviet Union; Czar Nicholas removed from power, his family and other members of ruling class were killed; Bolshevik party and peasants led by Lenin formed Communist government and took control of farming and industry; farms were taken over by the government
a peninsula lying north of the mainland of Europe; includes Norway, Sweden, and Finland
northern area of Russia; very cold (low temps 40 below zero), snowy (3 to 4 feet), icy; much of it has ground that is frozen all year
workers who have training, education, or experience to do a certain job. Examples: engineers, computer technicians, mechanics.
areas of London where, in order to improve air quality, only smokeless fuels can be used
when a country uses its resources and skills to produce goods efficiently; encourages trade between countries; the division of labor; work is divided into parts for workers, factories, or countries to become expert at producing certain goods
St. Lawrence Seaway
a canal system that provides a passageway for ships to travel between the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean
Standard of living
Regarding people in a country or part of the world: includes the homes they live in, what type of nutrition and medical care they receive, the availability and level of education
the elected body of Russia's Federal Assembly; controls the budget and makes laws; approves prime minister selected by the president
Stock market crash
occurs when the value of stocks falls quickly and deeply; the values of stocks (shares of ownership) people held in companies began a steep and quick drop.
a grant or contribution of money, especially one made by a government in support of an undertaking or the upkeep of a thing
something used to represent something else, often something immaterial, often and emblem, token, or sign
another word for tax; the purpose of a tariff, such as a protective tariff, is to increase the prices of imported goods and protect a country's own industries from foreign competition; taxes on imports, raise the price of imported goods, which increases the demand and price for the same goods produced by domestic suppliers. Revenues from tariffs are collected by the domestic government.
an area similar to a Canadian province but with less local government; controlled by the Canadian government
Third world countries
developing nations that do not have much industry and that depend on farming; have lower standard of living than industrialized countries
to encourage in the exchange, purchase, or sale of goods; voluntary exchange of goods and services among people and countries benefitting both parties
an economic or physical limit to what can be traded with a country; ways of limiting trade by tariffs, quotas, or embargoes; limit world trade, diminish economic efficiency, reduce total production and employment, raise prices, and encourage retaliation. They benefit some domestic companies and their workers at the expense of foreign companies and workers, and domestic consumers.
an economy dominated by methods and techniques that have strong social support even though they may be out of date; economy in which customs and habits of the past decide what and how goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed
Treaty of Versailles
(1919) an agreement that officially ended World War I; it required that Germany accept full responsibility for the war; explained what the winners of the war would gain and what the losers would lose; punished Germany for the war, stripped Germany of power, land, and military; Germany had to pay Allies for war; the U.S. refused to sign the treaty
a plain found in arctic and subarctic regions that has permanently frozen subsoil and is treeless
fan blades that are turned by some type of energy which in turn produces a useful power . For example water from the river, as it flows through the dam, turns the turbine and makes electricity.
a form of government in which the central government decides which powers to grand to local governments; a form of government in which a central government operates all levels of government in a country; characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is held by one central authority (Examples: Cuba and United Kingdom)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; often just shortened to "Soviet Union". This country does not exist anymore. It has now been broken up into several different countries.
government that guarantees certain benefits to the unemployed, poor, disabled, old, and sick, such as is done in the Basic Law of Germany
World War I
European conflict from 1914 to 1918; also known as the Great War and "the war to end all wars"
connected to US banks; wages fell; banks closed; business slowed; inflation rose, farmers lost land