- A symbolic way to make sense of the world.
- A human construction.
The Purposes of a Theory
- Organize experiences
- Anticipate events
- Extend our knowledge
- Stimulate further research
Metaphors for Theories
- A Net
- Pair of Lenses
- A Map
- Objectivist view
- helps us get our hands around whats going on / how to understand by grouping and organizing.
- Can have holes / exceptions.
Pair of Lenses
- Interpretive view
- Calls our attention to certain things/ details.
- Change perception of the world.
- Downside: many focus on the wrong thing, bad to look at the world through only one.
- Mix of Both Objectivist and Interpretivist
- We need theory to guide us through unfamiliar territory.
- Communication is like an ever changing land. (Complicated)
What Communication Scholars Study
- Studies numbers
- Surveys and Data
- Studies words.
- Textual analysis, ethnography.
- Cause and effect
-"is" not "ought"
- Means of persuasion, public, argumentation, power, and beauty of language.
- Signs and symbols.
- Shifts in meaning
- Pictorial imagery
- (re)Production of culture, processual, Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
- Structure of a language shapes what people think and do.
- The social construction of reality.
- Marxist critique
- Social Action
- Noise reduction
- Information processing
- Shannon and Weaver model
- Individual stories
- Empathic cncern
- Subjective experience
- Best thing to do
Symbolic Interactionism (Mead)
- Socio- Cultural tradition
- Students complied notes to publish his work in a book titled "Mind Self and Society"
- Perceptions differ from student to student making the thoery "muddy".
3 Core Principles of Symbolic Interactionism
- It is human nature to assign meaning to everything we see/ encounter.
- How we assign meanings; naming, default assumptions.
- minding, taking the role of another.
- What to hear/ what to say.
Looking Glass Self
- Perception of yourself when considering the way that you think people think about you.
- How you see yourself
- Your true self
- How others see you or how you want them to see.
- Conscious effort of putting your best foot forward.
- Individuals you have relationships with.
- Society as a whole.
Expectancy Violations (Burgoon)
- Socio-Psychological Tradition
- Violation Valence
Interaction Adaption Theory (Burgoon)
- Extension and expansion of Expectancy Violation Theory
-How people adjust once an expectation has been violated.
3 Key Priciples of Interaction Adaption Theory
-Socio-psycological tradition & Rhetorical tradition
- Deals with role category questionaire.
Role Category Questionaire
- Free response survey designed to measure the cognitive complexity of a persons interpersonal perception.
- Mental ability to distinguish subtle personality/ behavior differences among people.
- The main component of cognitive complexity
- The number of sperarte personality constructs used to portray the person in question.
Social Penetration Theory (Altman & Taylor)
- Socio-Psychological Tradtion
- Self-Disclosure and Closeness
- Bredth and Depth
Chief Metaphor for Social Penetration Theory
- An Onion
How Self Disclosure is related to closeness
- The more you tell someone about yourself and the more they tell you about themself, the closer you are to them socially.
- Conversing with someone about few subjects, but go very into detail about them.
- Conversing with someone about a lot of subjects, but dont go into much depth about any of them.
Social Exchange Theory
- You take your rewards and compare them with your costs in a relationship.
- What you give up in a relationship
- What you gain from a relationship
- rewards minus costs.
- A standard for relational satisfaction.
Comparison Level of Alternatives
- The best outcome in other relationships.
- How happy you aer in a relationship.
- If you have a low comparison level and meet someone who has a high comparison level, you may leave for the higher person.