Type of epithelium that is flat and scalelike
Type of epithelium that is cube-shaped
Type of epithelium that is columnlike
Type of epithelium that is stretchy or variably shaped
Cells arranged in a single layer and are all the same type of cell.
Cells arranged in several layers.
Type of epithelium that looks stratified but isn't.
Types of epithelial membranes
Cutaneous, Serous (parietal & visceral), Mucous
Main organ of the integumentary system; functions like a tarp placed over a boat; makes up approx 16% of total body weight; skin is the largest, visible organ.
A two-layered membrane with a potential (fluid-filled) space in between; comprised of the parietal and visceral layers
Lines the wall of the ventral body cavities in which organs reside; produces serum fluid
Wraps around the individual organs; produces serous fluid
Lines openings to the outside world, such as digestivetract, respiratory system, and urinary & reproductive tracts; called mucous membranes because they contain specialized cells that produce mucus.
Associate with connective tissue; found in spaces between joints and produces a slippery substance called synovial fluid.
Plasma membrane; Surrounds the cytoplasm of the cell; acts as a protective covering.
Most common means of passive transport by which a solute travels from an area of higher concentration to an are of lesser concentration, with the gradient; Necessary in the transportation of oxygen from the lungs and into the blood.
Form of passive transport in which water travels through a selectively permeable membrane when a concentration gradient is present. (water is moving with its concentration gradient)
Pressure is applied to force water and its dissolved materials across a membrane; selective process in that only solutes that can fit through channels and other openings in the membrane will filter across it.
Carrier-mediated passive transport; variation of diffusion in which a carrier molecule helps a substance move across the membrane. Glucose is the substance that is often transported this way.
Special environment that is needed for survival of the internal parts of a cell.
Control center; dictates the activities of the organelles in the cell.
Material found in the nucleaus that contains DNA; DNA contains blueprints for the creation of cells. Chromatin eventually forms chromosomes, which contain genes.
Determine our inherited characteristics.
Spherical body made up of dense fibers; found within the cell nucleus. Major function is to synthesize the RNA that forms ribosomes.
Organelles that are found on a specific cell structure called the endoplasmic reticulum or floating around in the cytoplasm; Made of RNA and assist in the production of enzymes & other proteins that are needed fro cell repair and reproduction.
Specialized regions within the cell that build new structures.
Contained in centrosomes and are involved in the division of the cell; tubular shaped and usually found in pairs.
Tiny bean-shaped organelles; act as power plants to provide up to 95 percent of the body's energy needs for cellular repair, movement and reproduction. Where ATP is made.
Series of channels set up in the cytoplasm that are formed from folded membranes.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
ER that has a sandpaperlike surface, result of ribosomes on its surface; responsible for the synthesis of protein.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
ER that has no ribosomes on its surface; synthesizes lipids and steroids.
Looks like a bunch of flattened, mebranous sacs; receives protein from the ER and further processes & stores it as a shippable product.
Vesicles containing powerful hydrolytic enzymes that take care of cleaning up intracellular debrin and other waste; also aid in maintaining health by destroying unwanted bacteria through phagocytosis.
Network of microtubules and interconnected filaments that provide shape to the cell and allow the cell and its contents to be mobile.
Whip-shaped tails that move some cells in a fashion similar to that of a tadpole.
Short, microscopic, hairlike projections located on the outer surface of some cells.
Process of sorting chromosomes so that each new cell gets the right number of copies of all the genetic material. Only way eukaryotic cells can reproduce asexually.
Most of the cell cycle; cell is not dividing but is performing its normal function along with stockpiling needed materials and preparing for divion by also copying DNA, and making new organelles.
Portion of cell cycle that is devoted to cell division. (Mitosis is the division & sorting of the genetic material, whereas cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm).
4 Phases of Mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
The nucleus disappears, the chromosomes become visible, and a set of chromosomal anchor lines or guide wires, the spindle, forms.
The chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.
The chromosomes split, and the spindles pull them apart.
The chromosomes go to the far ends of the cell, the spindle disappears, and the nuclei reappear.
Occurs during or directly after telophase; cell divides in half.
Produces gametes or sexual cells, which contain half the chromosomes because the sexual union of male and feale will contribute the other half.
One-celled animal-like organisms that can be found in water, such as ponds, and in soil.
Glucose is combined with oxygen and is transformed in the mitochondria into the high-energy molecule ATP.
Horizontal plane; Dividing the body into superior and inferior sections. Cross-sectioning.
Midsagittal plane; Divides the body into equal right and left halves. Always on the midline
Divide body or organ into right and left portions; Run parallel to midsagittal sections but aren't always on the midline.
Cranial and spinal cavity
Thoracic, pericardial, abdominopelvic cavity
Contains heart, lungs, and large blood vessels
Contains the digestive organs, such as the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen.
Contains urinary and reproductive organs and the last part of the intestine.
Houses the brain.
Contains spinal cord.
Identification of a disease determined by studying the patient's signs, symptoms, hisotry and results of diagnostic tests.
Cause of disease
Prediction of the outcome of a disease.
Physiological process that monitors and maintains a stable internal environment or equilibrium
Negative feedback loop
Continually senses the internal and external environments and makes adjustments to maintain homeostasis.
Increases the magnitude of a change; vicious cycle; not a way to regulate your body because it increases a change away from the ideal set point.
Inflammation of the pancreas. Four main categories: metabolic, mechanical, vascular and infectious. Metabolic causes, especially alcoholism, account for 80 percent of all cases.
Types of immunity
Innate (inborn) immunity and adaptive (acquired;specific) immunity
The bulk movement of the air down to the terminal ends of the airway, where the actual gas exchange takes place with the bloodstream.
Process of gas exchange in which oxygen is added to the blood and carbon dioxide is removed.
Condition in which there is air inside the thoracic cavity and outside the lungs, often in the pleural cavity.
Condition in which an excessive buildup of blood develops in the pleural cavity between the parietal and the visceral pleura.
Inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest (pleura) that leads to chest pain when you take a deep breath or cough. May develop due to pneumonia or tuberculosis.
Stimulation to breath
Breathing rate is normally controlled by the level of carbon dioxide in our blood.
Atrioventricular (AV ) valves
Valves between each atrium and the ventricle on the same side.
On right side; formed with three cusps, or folds.
Mitral; on left side.
Between the ventricles and the large arteries that carry blood away fro the heart.
Pulmonary semilunar valve
On the right.
Aortic semilunar valve
On the left.
Control center in the brain that tells us to breathe.
Coarse nasal hairs that act as the first line of defense for the respiratory system. Covered with sebum (a greasy substance secreted by the sebaceous glands of the nose). Sebum helps to trap large particles and also keeps the nose hairs soft & pliable.
Mechanisim of action for Aspirin as an anit-platelet
Low-dose, long-term aspirin irreversibly blocks the formation of thromboxane A2, in platelets, producing an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation.
Condition in which chronic low levels of oxygen (due to lung disease or living in high altitudes) cause the body to produce more than normal amounts of erythrocytes to transport more efficiently the decreased oxygen available.
Small, encapsulated bodies divided into sections. Inside are sections of lymphatic tissues containing WBCs known as lymphocytes.
Location of lymph nodes
Cervical, axillary, inguinal, pelvic, abdominal, thoracic and supratrochlear.
A large duct that runs from the abdomen up through the diaphragm and into the left subclavian vein. More than 2/3 of the lymphtaic system drains into the thoracic duct. Lymphatic trunks that empty into thoracic duct: lumbar, intestinal, left bronchomediastinal, left subclavian & left jugular.
Right lymphatic duct
A smaller duct within the right thorax that empties into the right subclavian vein. Lymphatic trunks that empty into the right lymphatic duct: right broncomediastinal, right subclavian, right jugular trunk.
Circulation of lymphatic fluid
Blood to tissue to lymphatic capillaries to lymphatic vessels to lymph nodes to lymphatic vessels to lymphatic trunks to lymphatic ducts to subclavian veins and then back to blood.
Type I Diabetes
Characterized by the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, which usually leas to absolute insulin deficiency. Accounts for most diabetes-related deaths.
Treatment of Type I Diabetes
Administration of insulin.
Type II Diabetes
Associated with a moderate decline in insulin production accompanied by a markedly deficient response to the insulin present in the body. Obese persons are morel likely to develop Type II.
Treament of Type II Diabetes
Dietary changes, increased exercise.
Form of hypothyroidism caused by an autoimmune attack on your thyroid gland. Immune system begins to attack the cells in the thyroid, causing inflammation and damage to the gland. Most common in women between 30-50. Can be treated by taking thyroid hormones daily.
Caused by insufficient production of the adrenocorticosteroid cortisol. Causes weight loss, muscle weakness, fatigue, low blood pressure, and excessive skin pigmentation. Treated with hormone replacement.
Caused by oversecretion of cortisol. Symptoms include upper body obesity, round face, easy bruising, weakened bones, fatigue, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar. May be a side effect of steriods, like prednisone, or may be due to tumors or genetic disorders.
Somatic nervous system
Part of motor system; Controls skeletal muscle and voluntary movements.
Autonomic nervous system
Part of motor system; Controls smooth and cardiac muscle in organs and several glands. Involuntary and not under conscious control. Divided into parasympathetic and sympathetic branches.
"Resting and digesting." Controls normal body functioning.
"Fight or Flight." Body's alert system.
Sodium & The Nervous System
When cell is stimulated (excited), sodium gates in the cell membrane spring open. When open, they allow sodium ions to travel across the cell membrane. These sodium ions are positively charged, so when they go into the cell, the cell becomes more positive (depolarized).
Potassium & The Nervous System
When sodium channels shut, the gates on Potassium channels open. Potassium, which is also positive, leaves the cell taking its positive charges with it. The inside of the cell becomes more negative again, eventualy returning to rest (repolarization).
Nerves = Phrenic (diaphragm). Located deep in neck, under the SCM. Spinal nerves C1-C4. Region supplied = skin & muscles of neck and shoulder; diaphragm.
Nerves = Musculotaneous, Ulnar, Median, Radial, Axillary. Located deep to the clavicle, between the neck and axilla. Spinal nerves C5-C8, T1. Region supplied = skin & muscles of upper extremity.
Nerves = Obturator, femoral, sciatic, pudendal. Located in lumbar region of back. Spinal nerves T12, L1-L5, S1-S4. Region supplied = skin & muscles of lower abdominal wall, lower extremities, buttocks, external genitalia.
Collection of white matter surrounding the lateral ventricles that connects the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum.
Vagus nerve (X)
Releases a neurotransmitter that can decrease heart rate (parasympathetic division); Also controls stomach's activity.
Pool of blood between the dura mater and arachnoid mater, in the subdural space. Bleeding occurs very slowly and is usually due to rupture of venous vessels.
Bleeding in the epidural space, usually results from damage to the middle meningeal arteries from a skull fracture. Causes rapid swelling and compression of brain, and may require drilling of burr holes to relieve the pressure.
Condition in which the lens loses its flexibility and transparency, and light cannot easily pass through the clouded lens.
Middle layer of eye that is a highly vascularized and pigmented region that provides nourishment to the eye. Contains the iris and pupil.
First ossicle attached to the tympanic membrane.
Second ossicle attached tot he hammer.
Third ossicle that connects to a membrane called the oval window (begins the internal ear and carries the amplified vibrations from the tympanic ossicles).
Controls much of the body's physiology, including hunger, thirst, fluid balance and body temperature; production of ADH and oxytocin
Releases melatonin; believed to regulate sleep
"Master Gland" ; Controls other endocrine organs
Controls cellular metabolism
Increases blood calcium
Secretes insulin (lowers blood sugar) and glucagon (raises blood sugar)
Pair of small glands that sit on top of the kidneys. Split into two regions: adrenal cortex (outer layer) and adrenal medulla (middle of the gland). Epinephrine, norepinephrine (flight-or-fight response), adrenocorticosteriods
Estrogen, progesterone; control sexual reproduction and seconday sexual characteristics, such as pubic and axillary hair, and breast development
Testerone; control secondary sexual characteristics such as growth of bear or other hair, deepening of voice, increase in musculature, and production of sperm
Chemical messengers released by endocrine glands
Special class of hormones that are powerful because they can bind to sites inside cells.
If any of the body's dozens of homeostatic values become seriously disrupted, the control systems work to bring them back to set point
Increases the magnitude of a change
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
(Vasopressin); Hypothalamic hormone secreted from the posterior pituitary. Effect of ADH is to decrease fluid lost due to urination, thereby increasing body fluid volume. Secreted when the hypothalamus senses decreased blood volume or increased blood osmolarity.
Somatic Sensory System
Provides sensory input for your nervous system.
Sense of touch. Includes fine touch, crude touch, vibration, pain, temperature, and body position.
Somatic Motor System
Controls voluntary movements under orders from the cerebral cortex.
Three divisions of the ear
External ear, middle ear (tympanic cavity) and the inner ear (labyrinth).
Outer projection - Auricle or pinna: collects and directs sound waves into the auditory canal or external auditory meatus.
Earwax secreted by the ceruminous glands to lubicrate and protect the ear.
(Tympanic membrane) Eardrum at the end of the canal where the external ear ends and the middle ear begins.
Tympanic cavity (middle ear)
Space that contains three smallest bones of the body (ossicles).
Three small bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup-shaped) that help amplify the sound waves and transmit sound
Allow for equalization of external (atmospheric) and internal (within the middle ear) pressure on the tympanic membrane so the eardrum can freely vibrate with incoming sound.
Three areas of inner ear (labyrinth)
Vestibule chamber, cochlea, and semicircular canals.
Houses the internal ear.
Bony spiral or snail shell-shaped entrance to the inner ear connected to the oval window membrane.
Oval window membrane
Portal into the inner ear (labyrinth).
Fluid in the cochlea which helps to transmit the sound through this area.
Three canals containing endolymph fluid, which transmits positional changes to tiny, hairlike receptors that are stimulated and conduct the signal to the brain via the vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve) to help maintain balance.
Induced active immunity
Artificially acquired immunity; designed to provide protection from exposure to an antigen at some time in the future; Achieved through vaccination.
Occurs following expsoure to an antigen and results in the production of antibodies specific to an antigen and results in the production of antibodies specific for the antigen. Most vaccinations result in the development of active immunity.
Results from the introduction of antibodies; 2 types: natural passive & induced passive.
Natural passive immunity
Occurs when antibodies cross the placental barrier from the mother to the infant to provide protection against embryonic or fetal infections.
Induced passive immunity
Administration of antibodies to an individual to help fight infection or prevent diseases.
Inflammation of the stomach and small intestines.
Form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the ileum and/or colon. Also called regional ileitis. Named for Burrill Crohn, an American gastroenterologist.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Disturbance in the functions of the intestine from unknown causes. Symptoms generally include abdominal discomfort and alteration in bowel activity.
Xrays, CT Scans and MRIs
MRI produces the greatest detail of tissue structures (down to individual nerve bundles) and has decreased radiation exposure.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Serious, potentially life-threatening complication associated with Type I diabetes; occurs when profound insulin deficiency is coupled with increased glucagon and stress hormone activity; may occur as the initial presentation of severe diabetes, as a result of patient noncompliance with insulin injections, or as the result of physiologic stress, such as surgery, a myocardial infarction or serious infection; In initial phase, profound hyperglycemia develops b/c of lack of insulin.
Low blood glucose; Can occur when a patient takes too much insulin, eats too little to match an insulin dose, or physically overexerts and uses almost all of the available blood glucose.
Cells that actually form bones.
Bones grow longitudinally to lengthen and they grow wider & thicker so they can more efficiently support body weight and any other weight we support when we work or play.
Trauma can cause the fragile blood vessels within the conjuctiva to rupture; can also be caused by sneezing, coughing, vomiting, straining and high blood pressure.
"Septic arthritis"; inflammation of a joint due to bacterial or fungal infection. Most common sites for this type of arthritis are the knee and hip.
Clot forms at the site of the blockage.
Blood clot forms elsewhere in the body, usually in the heart or great vessels, travels through the circulatory system, and ultimately lodges in a cerebral artery, which causes occlusion.
Most occure within the substance of the brain (intracerebral hemorrhage).
Special blood antigen first found in the blood of rhesus monkeys; 85% of white & 88% of African-American population of US possess the Rh antigen in their blood. (Rh positive).
Iron-containing red pigment that aids RBCs in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the cells in the body.
Rule of nines
Head & neck = 9% (child = 18%)
Each upper limb = 9%
Each lower limb = 18% (child = 14%)
Front of trunk = 18%
Back of trunk & buttocks = 18%
Genitalia = 1%
Unmyelinated cell bodies.
Chronic inflammatory disorder of the muscular system; Presence of 11 of 18 specific tender points, nonrestorative sleep, muscle stiffness, and generalized aching pain, with symptoms present for more than three months' duration.
A tear in the muscle wall that allows a structure (usually an organ) to protrude through it.
Results from a ruptured blood vessel within the substance of the brain.
Emergency Cardiac Care (ECC)
A comprehensive system designed to deal with sudden, often life-threatening events that affect the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory systems. Key link to ECC is the layperson who recognizes the medical emergency, summons EMS, and provides initial CPR and other BLS measures.
External anatomy of kidney
Renal Capsule - fibrous layer of connective tissue that covers kidney; Renal hilum - indentation that gives the kidney its bean-shaped appearance.
Internal anatomy of kidney
3 layers: renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pelvis.
Outer layer of internal kidney; grainy in appearance and has very little obvious structure to the naked eye; where the blood is actually filtered.
Middle layer of internal kidney; contains a # of triangle-shaped striped areas called renal pyraminds (composed of collecting tubules for the urine that is formed by the kidney); adjacent pyramids are separated by narrow renal columns which are extensions of the cortical tissue.
Funnel that is divided into two or three large collecting cups, called major calyces. Each major calyx is divided into several minor calyces. The calyces form cup-shaped areas around the tips of the pyramids to collect the urine that continually drains through the pyramids.
Tubing that transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
Fever & temperature that regulates fever
A fever sets the hypothalamus to a higher set point temperature. The body increases metabolism to generate more heat to reach this now higher set temperature. Once whatever causing the fever is gone, the hypothalamus set temperature is turned back down to thre true normal. The body must now rapidly get rid of the excess heat by the cooling process of evaporation through sweating.
Fertilized egg; has the typical number of chromosomes for a human cell, 46; undergoes millions of rounds of mitosis and development within the female to change from an embryo to a fetus.
An injection of local anesthetic into the epidural space.
Lazy eye; usually occurs in childhood; poor vision in one eye is caused by the abnormal dominance of the other eye, which does most of the work.
Pus in the pleural space.
Absence of menstruation and can be a result of pregnancy, menopause, or other factors such as emotional distress, extreme dieting or exercise, or poor health.
Difficult menstruation, usually resulting in painful cramping.
When a body dies, all the store calcium cannot be pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, excess calcium remains in the muscles throughout the body and causes the muscle fibers to shorten (contract) and stiffen the whole body. In addition, ATP is not present in a dead body to break the crossbridges.
Carbohydrate that the body stores in the muscle; always on reserve waiting to be converted to a usable energy source; when needed the muscle can convert glycogen to glucose, which releases energy for muscle to function.
Glands of Endocrine system
Hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, thryoid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, ovaries, testes.
Which part of immune system is decreased by HIV/AIDS
3 sections of Pharynx
Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx
Uppermost section of pharynx and begins just posterior to the two nasal cavities; contains lymphatic tissue of the immune system (adenoids), and passageways to the middle ear (eustachian tubes).
Located posterior to the oral cavity; conducts not only air but also food and liquid. Lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
Lowermost portion of pharynx; air that is breathed and anything that is swallowed passes through the laryngopharynx.
Layers of the Uterus
Perimetrium - outermost layer; visceral peritoneum
Myometrium - middle layer; consists of smooth muscle
Endometrium - inner lining; mucosa layer of columnar epithelium & secretory cells (muscosa has 2 divisions: basal layer (responsible for regenerating the uterine lining each month) & functional layer (sheds about every 28 days when a woman has her period).
Actual shedding of the endometrium, whereas menses is the time during which a woman is menstruating.
Overall functions of Endocrine system
Series of organs and glands in the body that secrete chemical messengers (hormones) into the bloodstream.
Number of times a woman has been pregnant.
Number of pregnancies carried to full term.
Woman who is pregnant for the first time.
3 processes of urine formation
Filtration, reabsorption and secretion.
Causes: Cardiac tamponade, heart failure, hypervolemia
Signs & symptoms of poor perfusion
AMS, plae, cool, clammy skin; nausea and vomiting; increased pulse rate; increased respiratory rate; fall in blood pressure.
Fungal nail infection
Where autonomic nervous system begins
Sympathetic=thoracolumbar output (T1-L2)
Parasympathetic=craniosacral output (C3,7,9,10;S2-4)
Primary & secondary response to allergies
Primary occurs when the allergen is first encountered; response is slow there are only a few B cells that react. This weak response allows the invader enough time to cause illness and a type of antibody & memory B cells are produced.
Secondary Response=next time the antigen is encountered, response is quicker & stronger each time. Memory B cells recognize the antigen and begin to divide quickly. This results in reproduction of plasma cells which makes a different type of antibody.
Most common joint disorder; caused by 'wear and tear' on a joint.
Erosion of stomach lining.
Spinal cord concussion
A temporary interruption in cord-mediated functions.
Spinal cord contusion
Bruising of the neural tissue that results in swelling and temporary loss of cord-mediated functions.
Complete spinal cord transection
Severing of the spinal cord which causes permanent loss of function.
Slow-growing cancer that affects males over 50 years old and can be treated effectively if detected early. A PSA (prostate-specific antigen) test can aid in early detection.
One of the leading causes of death in woman between the ages of 32-52, and kills about 41,000 women a year. Men can also get breast cancer but at a lower rate.
Neuromuscular junction (synaspse)
Specialized synapse between somatic (voluntary) motor neurons and the skeletal muscles they innervate.
Anterior of lower leg; Dorsiflexes foot
Main muscle of calf (posterior lower leg); Plantar flexes foot.
Enzyme that breaks down fats.
Digestive enzyme that speeds up the chemical activity that breaks down carbohydrates.
Verruca plantaris; Caused by the human papillomavirus occurring on the sole or toes of the foot.
An infection, usually from viruses or bacteria, of the meninges, the lining of the brain and spinal cord. Bacterial meningitis is potentially fatal. High-risk groups include older adults, people with suppressed immune systems, very young children, and college students who live in dorms.
Buildup of bilirubin in the body.
What ligaments and tendons are formed from
Causes of kidney stones
Diet high in green vegetables and brewed tea (high in oxalates); warm climate, reduced level of physical activity.
Not only covers and lines much of the body but also covers many of the parts found in the body.
Normal saline; Lactated Ringer's
Breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
Stratum basale - deep region of epidermis; stratum corneum (horny layer) - layer of dead cells.