Human Development Test 1

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A crucial element of the study of human development is:

its scientific approach.

When Mary retired from her job of 30 years, her health improved and her income fell. From a dynamic- systems approach, she experienced a:

multidirectional change.

A researcher interested in making a multicultural comparison would be most likely to compare which of the following?

Australians and Canadians

A researcher interested in how computer abilities change with age examines the computer skills of 14-year-olds and 20-year-olds. She finds that the computer skills of the 20-year-olds are better than those of the 14-year-olds. Which of the following is a possible explanation for this result?

cohort differences

A behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is:

changing the data to support the hypothesis.

A characteristic of grand theories includes:

comprehensiveness.

Danielle sucks her thumb because she finds it very pleasurable. She is also becoming emotionally attached to her daddy, Andy, who feeds her. According to Freud, Danielle is most likely in:

the oral stage.

The scientist who first demonstrated classical conditioning was:

Ivan Pavlov

Lori always yells at her 5-year-old son Jake when he won't get dressed for school. Although she has been yelling at him to get dressed nearly every day for months, he still does not comply when she asks him to get dressed. Operant conditioning would explain this by pointing out that:

Lori's yelling is serving as a reinforcer

Cognitive theories emphasize the:

development of thought processes and their effect on behavior.

Molecules of DNA are referred to as:

chromosomes.

A genome is:

the full set of genes for a particular organism.

Human development begins when a sperm penetrates the membrane of:

an ovum.

An XX pattern in the 23rd pair of chromosomes indicates the fetus will:

be female.

Physical traits such as height are:

determined by environmental influences and genetic potential.

The longest period of prenatal development is the:

period of the fetus

What begins to develop last during prenatal development?

toes

Teratology refers to:

the study of birth defects.

Because Suzanne is pregnant, she drinks only one glass of wine a day and smokes fewer cigarettes than previously. She should be told that:

each drug might intensify the effects of the other.

The second stage of labor begins when the:

baby's head appears at the opening of the vagina.

Children reach half their adult height by age:

2 years.

The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth is known as:

head-sparing.

The nerve cells of the brain are called:

neurons.

The process by which underused neurons are inactivated is known as:

pruning.

The process that is involved when a body system first detects an external stimulus is:

sensation

The Swiss scientist who emphasized that infants are active learners and that early learning is based on sensory and motor skills was:

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget was most interested in:

studying how children think.

Children all over the world usually:

follow the same sequence of language development.

Piaget's basic test for object permanence involves:

showing a baby an interesting toy and then covering it with a cloth.

A baby sticks out its tongue and another person laughs. The baby joins in the laughter and deliberately sticks out its tongue again. Piaget would call this:

secondary circular reactions.

The first recognizable emotion in an infant is:

distress.

An infant's distress at an unfamiliar person is called:

stranger wariness.

Dr. Hoemann believes that a child's behavior problems are caused entirely by the parents' use of reinforcements and punishments. Dr. Hoemann is most likely a(n):

behaviorist.

A sign of secure attachment is:

attempting to be close to the caregiver.

Ruby does not notice when her mother leaves the day-care center and ignores her mother when she returns. Ruby's behavior is:

insecure-avoidant attachment.

The manner of studying human development that takes into account all phases of life is referred to as the:

life-span perspective.

Cohort refers to a group of people who:

are born within a few years of one another.

The theory that arose in direct opposition to psychoanalytic theory is:

Behavioral Theory

The "age of viability" refers to the point when the preterm newborn:

can survive.

Some teratogens are harmless until they reach a certain level of exposure; they then become dangerous, demonstrating the:

threshold effect.

By the eighth week after conception, the embryo has almost all of the basic organs except:

sex organs.

Studies comparing breast-feeding with bottle-feeding show that:

breast-fed babies have fewer allergies and stomach aches.

According to Erikson, an infant who does not successfully resolve the ___________ crisis may become cynical about her social environment.

trust versus mistrust

According to your text book, when infants use facial expressions to help them understand what to do in new situations, they are engaging in what researchers call _________.

social referencing.

Four mothers whose infants are in a play group walk out of the room for a few minutes and then come back in. Which one of their infants displays an anxious-resistant pattern of attachment?

Tracy, who would not be comforted in her mother's absence and is now angrily hitting at her mother with her tiny fist.

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