Nicole's mother is terribly afraid of snakes. Although Nicole has never actually seen a snake, she has an intense fear of snakes and refuses to walk in the grass because of how much her mother has warned her about them.
vicarious conditioning of a phobia
Which of the following is one of benefits that those with GAD commonly believe they derive from worrying?
if i worry about it now, i won't be as upset when it happens
is a tendency to feel anxious
Why do many people with panic disorder continue to believe they are having a heart attack despite the fact that they never have?
they tend to engage in "safety behaviors" that they believe are the reason the catastrophe didn't happen
persistent and recurrent thoughts are
Derek's moods have always seemed to be unpredictable and irrational. Nancy has been diagnosed with GAD, and never knows when he is going to come home and yell at her and the kids. Family therapy has revealed moods are not irrational, but a reflection of sales at his work. Which of the following would reduce Nancy's anxiety?
Derek could call home each day and let Nancy know how the day went
Kayla has just started college and wants to make friends. She refuses to go to large parties because she is afraid she will blush and sweat. She is fine talking to people in one-on-one settings.
Which of the following have studies of control in humans and monkeys provided support for?
Early experiences may serve as protective factors, decreasing likelihood of developing GAD
Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of OCD?
symptomatic behavior causes distress
What disorder does GAD appear to be most related to
The fact that bright light may be an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder suggests
this form of depression is produced by a malfunctioning biological clock that needs resetting
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
may lead to sexual problems
Drugs that alter availability of norepinephrine and serotonin are not clinically effective in the treatment of depression for several weeks. What does this suggest?
Changes in neurotransmitter function, as opposed to neurotransmitter level, cause depression
John's erratic behavior finally ruined his marriage. What kind of life event would this be described as?
Mania and depression may reflect defensive strategies for coping with severe stress. This is a theory associated with
When Jill experienced her first panic attack, she felt as if she were outside of herself...
Which of the following is associated with a unique physiological response pattern?
which of the following reactions to poor test performance suggests a cognitive diathesis for depression?
I'll never understand this
When Kenneth was a young boy he went to a dentist who treated him uncaringly and inflicted a good deal of pain. Now, he is afraid of dentists and physicians. This is
generalization of classical conditioning
In order to meet criteria for a major depressive episode, a person must have
significant distress or impairment
Tara believes it is extremely important to be clean. She cleans her kitchen and bathroom daily, and the rest of the house at least once every few days. She says she wants people to be able to eat off her floors. She
Has no disorder
neurobiological factors involved in panic disorder and GAD provide evidence for the hypothesis that
Both disorders are caused by an excess of the GABA neurotransmitter
probably exists in all societies, but take different forms in different cultures
Quentin is seeking medication to treat his panic disorder. Due to his history of substance abuse, his doctor hesitates. He will most likely write a prescription for
Cognitive approaches to social phobia focus on
challenging automatic thoughts
Evolutionary preparedness explains
Why some types of phobias are much more common than others
Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of cyclothymia?
Clinically significant distress or impairment
Which of the following is supported by research on the role of genetic influences in unipolar disorders?
The more severe the depressive disorder, the greater the genetic contribution
Why is it not wise to treat an individual who has a bipolar disorder with an antidepressant?
the drug may trigger rapid cycling
A study of poor women in London found that ______ increased the likelihood of developing depression after experiencing sever stress
Having more than three children still at home
What is the most important characteristic used to distinguish dysthymia from major depression?
Whether or not there are occasional brief periods of normal moods during the disorder
Which of the following is most likely to attempt suicide?
A 25 year old divorced woman
Postpartum blues are
common, usually brief, and not a disorder
Stressful life events
appear to increase the time to recovery from a manic episode
Joanne tends to blow up at people and then feel guilty. She worries a lot. She complains that she just doesn't really find anything exciting and life is boring.
The evidence of neuroticism and low positive affectivity, and has a high risk of developing depression
is one of top 10 causes of death for children in United States
Which of the following is NOT an existing piece of evidence that provides support for role of cognitions in panic?
only individuals who tend to catastrophize develop panic disorder
Which of the following explanations for Diana's scissors phobia would Freud be most likely to offer?
Diana's mother is a seamstress and Diana unconsciously wants to kill her
Which of the following is most characteristic of anxiety?
The new DSM classification which omits the concept of neurosis is an improvement because
Diagnostic criteria are now based on shared, observable symptoms and are more clearly defined
What is meant by the phrase "double depression"?
An individual with dysthymia later develops major depressive disorder as well
Knowing what we know about neurotransmitter imbalances in bipolar disorder, a physician should give which advice?
Don't take drugs that increase dopamine levels because they can produce manic-like behavior
Which of the following is true of OCD
disorder tends to begin in adolescence or early adulthood, but is not uncommon in children
depression during adolescence
Can effect a person into young adulthood
The fact that dirt and contamination were threats to our ancestors suggest
that preparedness theory may help explain OCD
Most people with OCD
experience both obsessions and compulsions
Panic disorder is best described as a _________ condition
which of the following provides evidence against a role for inherited factors in development of phobias?
Impact of nonshared environmental factors
Which is not a common type of obsession seen in OCD?
fear of discrimination
If a pharmaceutical company were looking for a drug that would maximally treat GAD, they would want one that
Increased GABA levels while regulating serotonin
The effectiveness of Valium in treating GAD supports hypothesis that
A GABA deficiency underlies GAD
A relationship between depression and marital violence
is well-established, as is the contributory role of depressive symptoms in both participants
Which is true?
Most first time episodes of depression are preceded by a very stressful life event but that is not as true for recurrent episodes
Which would eliminate a potential diagnosis for cyclothymia?
Carol was absolutely convinced her mother wanted to kill her, although there was no evidence for this
Cross-cultural studies of mood disorders are made difficult due to
differences in diagnostic practices
_______ was once thought to be a fear of crowded places, but now is seen as a complication of having panic attacks in public
According to the behavioral viewpoint, compulsions are repeated ecause
they serve to reduce anxiety
which is true about suicide
about half of people who complete suicide do so during or in the recovery phase of a depressive episode
Lauren is phobic of birds. Her therapist shows her how to approach birds in a cage. Then the bird is taken out, petted, and fed. Therapist then encourages Lauren to do the same. This is
The prognosis for bipolar disorder is
guarded, most people continue to have some symptoms
an individual with a high stress tolerance
can function well in the face of a high level of stress
The Life Event and Difficulty Schedule
Includes cognitive factors in its examination of the impact of life events
Which of the following is a characteristic of an adjustment disorder?
symptoms may lessen when the individual has learned to cope
choosing between two equally attractive alternatives is
which of the following is likely to maintain or strengthen fears over time
overestimating the likelihood that the event will reoccur
which are amongst most common obsessive thoughts in people with OCD?
fear of contamination and fear of harming other
which of the following would be expected during the first phase of personality decompensation
Julia struggled to control her emotions
May develop in the recovery stage of "disaster syndrome"
occurs within 6 months of a stressor
The fight or flight response
involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system
Which of the following would be an example of direct therapeutic exposure?
Mandy visited the accident site
In DSM-IV-TR, psychosocial stressors are
specified on Axis IV
Which is a criticism of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale
It places too much emphasis on the role of cognitive factors
Which of the following statements about Mineka, Cook, and colleagues' animal studies is NOT true?
Observationally conditioned fear response were acquired quickly, but did not last more than a day or two
James began having panic attacks immediately after his mother died suddenly. Then, he began to fear going into public situations. Now he will not leave his apartment. What is unusual?
it is unusual for a person with severe agoraphobia to be a man
mower's two-process theory of avoidance learning provides a theoretical rationale for an effective treatment for OCD. What is the treatment?
exposure therapy with response prevention
social phobics are likely to
Attribute events in their lives to external factors
Which of the following provides a unique challenge when trying to eliminate obsessions seen in OCD?
attempting to not think about something may lead to thinking about it more
may involve exaggerated use of avoidance behaviors
which of the following is NOT one of 5 primary compulsive acts seen in people with OCD?
panic disorders are often misdianosed because
symptoms are so somatic they are treated by physicians for medical problems
Which of the following would Freud most likely say about a man with OCD?
He is fixated in the anal stage
Studies of preparedness and social phobia
Reveal that an explicit perception of threat is necessary to evoke a sympathetic response
The pituitary gland
releases hormones that regulate many bodily functions
dissociative and somatoform disorders
do not involve some obvious anxiety symptoms
All of the following involve psychological disturbances that occur in response to an identifiable experience except
prolonged stress leads to suppression of the immune system. What might explain evolution of such a seemingly flawed reaction?
such immune suppression might prevent the development of autoimmune illness
What has research on the preparedness theory of phobias found?
Acquired fear responses can be elicited with subliminal exposure to fear-relevant stimuli
Virtual reality environments
allow exposure therapy to be conducted in a simulated setting
Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of panic disorder?
uncued panic attacks
Holmes and Rahe
developed an objective tool for measure stress
Which of the following is an example of interoceptive avoidance?
mark no longer views sexually explicit films
What is the thought to explain the effectiveness of the SSRIs in treating panic disorder
they decrease noradrenergic activity
Fear or panic is a basic emotion that involves
activation of the fight or flight response
the individual with generalized social phobia
exhibits a fear of most social situations
Wendy went swimming in the ocean last week and became mildly fearful when she swallowed a lot of water. Yesterday someone told her a shark was seen in the water. Now she is petrified of going into the ocean. This illustrates
the inflation effect
Harold's panic attacks have become so severe that he has finally sought treatment. He sees a psychiatrist who writer Harold a prescription that should offer him some immediate relief. The drug is
high levels of anxiety sensitivity
are a diathesis for panic attacks
which of the following are the antidepressants most widely prescribed today for the treatment of panic attacks?
according to the fear of fear model of agoraphobia
minimal signs of sympathetic arousal come to signal more intense levels of arousal such that slight changes in autonomic activity become triggers for panic attacks
Which is false
the response an individual may have to a stressor can be easily predicted
agoraphobics are highly likely to have all of the following except
neurotic personality disorder
one way in which phobic individuals differ from nonphobics is that
phobics have a tendency to be constantly on alert for phobic stimuli
prepared fears are
fears that are especially easily acquired and/or especially resistant to extinction
it is easier to be afraid of pictures of snakes and crocodiles than mushrooms and flowers, which is evidence of
fear of negative evaluation by others is a hallmark
the most common specific social phobia is a fear of
individuals exposed to the same types of traumatic social experiences differ as to whether they will develop a social phobia because
preexisting differences in individuals' temperament and experience
Some things seem to be consistent across all the different forms that obsessive-compulsive disorder takes. These include:
an overwhelming fear that something terrible will happen to the person or to others for which they are responsible
Amber feels anxious almost all the time. She finds herself worrying that her husband will leave her (although he has never shown any indication that he would), that she chose the wrong job, that her children might not be safe at their school and that she might get sick and leave her family in financial ruin. She calls her husband almost everyday to find out when he will be home. She complains to her physician that she is always tired by cannot sleep or relax. Amber's most likely diagnosis is
generalized anxiety disorder
Which of the following is true of obsessive-compulsive disorder?
This disorder tends to begin in adolescence or early adulthood, but is not uncommon in children
It is fairly easy to condition monkeys and humans to fear snakes but almost impossible to condition either to fear a flower. This supports the ____theory of phobias
Which of the following provides a unique challenge when trying to eliminate the obsessions seen in OCD?
attempting to not think about something may lead to thinking about it more
fear or panic is a basic emotion that involves
the activation of the "fight or flight" response
Which of the following is most characteristic of anxiety
When Charissa was young child, she stepped on a bee and was stung. Since that time, she has been terrified of flying insects and runs away if she sees any. According to the classical conditioning model, the bee was
a conditioned stimulus
Martin is afraid to fly. He knows his boss wants him to take a trip for the business. Marin feels miserable, because he wants to keep his job but cannot even imagine getting on a plane. The most likely diagnosis for Martin is
specific phobia, situation type
is a tendency to experience negative mood states
the fact that bright light may be an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder suggests that
this form of depression is produced by a malfunctioning biological clock that needs resetting
although bipolar I disorder is described as "bipolar,"
a depressed episode is not necessary for a diagnosis
a recurrent depressive episode
is preceded by one or more previous episodes
abramson revised the learned helplessness theory to suggest that
hopelessness is needed in addition to helplessness in order to produce depression
according to Hammen's stress-generation model of depression,
marital distress can lead to depression and depression can lead to marital distress
the new DSM classification which omits the concept of neurosis is an improvement because
diagnostic criteria are now based on shared, observable symptoms and are more clearly defined
which of the following is one of the seven primary types of anxiety disorders recognized in the DSM-IV-TR?
obsessive compulsive disorder
which of the following is a true statement about rapid cycling?
it is seen in 5-10 percent of those with bipolar disorder
one of the main functions that worry seems to serve in generalized anxiety disorder is
it keeps people from feeling the emotional and physiological consequences of anxiety
transcranial magnetic stimulation
is a noninvasive biological treatment for depression.
All of the following are explanations for the increased prevalence of DID EXCEPT
the increased incidence of sexual abuse
involves multiple symptoms of at lease four different types
all of the following are associated with DID except
Dan's various medical complaints and hospital stays finally led him to a psychiatrist. After a thorough medical and psychological evaluation, the twenty-eighty-year-old teacher and father of two was diagnosed with both depression and somatization disorder. What is atypical about this case summary?
somatization disorder is seen much more commonly in women
Ryan has diabetes but has no trouble functioning. One day, his wife informs him that she is leaving him. Ryan suddenly develops terrible pain in his back, to the point he is unable to get out of bed. His wife agrees to stay for "a while" to take care of him. Ryan probably has
pain disorder associated with psychological factors
Which of the following is the most commonly true of the host identity in DID?
it is not the original identity
the most common quality of parents' interactions with their daughters who have eating disorders is
families of people with anorexia
exhibit tendencies towards perfectionism
which of the following characterizes most anorexia nervosa patients in Asia?
dear of stomach bleeding
after her dentist commented on the damage her practice of vomiting had caused to her teeth, Hilda realized that she had a problem. After seeing a psychiatrist, Hilda was diagnosed with anorexia, binge-eating/purging sub-type. Due to the severity of her condition, her doctor suggested that she be hospitalized. Hilda immediately entered an inpatient treatment program and embraced all aspects of the treatment regimen. What is unique about Hilda's case?
Hilda's lack of ambivalence about treatment
all of the following people have had one heart attack. Which of the following has the best chance of living longest?
Reuben, who is unmarried and has lots of close friends
are a type of leukocyte
no association has been found between nonfatal heart attacks and
what would be most helpful to a person with pain disorder
staying physically active despite the pain
which of the following has been demonstrated about the effects of psychogenic amnesias on memory
implicit memory is generally in tact
family therapy for anorexia appears to be most effective when it is used to treat
Chronic fatigue syndrome
has an unknown cause, but may have something to do with the immune system
The German man, in the study mentioned in the text, who had dissociative fugue denied that he could speak German. However, he learned German-English word pairs much faster that control words. This supports that
mainly episodic memory is lost, implicit memory stays intact
someone who binges and purges and is severely underweight is diagnosed as anorexic, not bulimic. This is because
anorexia has a much higher rate than bulimia
which of the following is true
negative emotions make an individual susceptible to disease and positive emotions seem to produce a certain immunity.
which is unique about OCD, as compared to other anxiety disorders
the incidence is about equal for men and women
which is a disadvantage of treating GAD with benzodiazepine?
such drugs are frequently misused
studies of preparedness and social phobia
find that angry faces act as fear relevant stimuli
most first panic attacks
follow some distressing event
involves a fear of one or more specific social situations
Which is characteristic of the obsessions seen in OCD
the individual with OCD knows that their obsessions are irrational
agoraphobia is best described as a fear of
experiencing a panic attack
what brain structure is recognized as playing a central role in panic attacks
recent research on relapse among bipolar patients suggest that
personality styles interact with stress to increase the likelihood of relapse
seasonal affective disorder is best described as a _______ depressive disorder
margaret has been suffering with dysthymia for several years...
is a tendency to focus on one negative detail of a situation while ignoring other aspects
which statement about gender difference in unipolar depression is true?
as a biological basis for the gender differences has not been established, researchers have sought a psychosocial explanation
independent life events are those that
are out of the client's control
can occur even in infants and very young children
Britany came to a therapist complaining that she just doesn't enjoy life lately...
major depressive disorder
Mark feels the need to tap everything within his arms reach twice
he has OCD
why do people with phobias continue to avoid the thing they fear
avoidance is reinforced by anxiety reduction
what do all mood disorders have in common?
they are characterized by emotional extremes
Debbie receives her paper back from her instructor...
which illusrates how cognitive variables may act to maintain acquired fears?
ryan's fear of heights caused him to always wonder just how high up he was in a building.
"Repeated stimulation of the limbic system by discharges from the locus coeruleus may lower the threshold for later experiences of anxiety"
panic disorders with agoraphobia
An evolutionary psychologist might say, "The unique physiological response in this disorder, involving fainting at the sight of the feared object, may have evolved because fainting might inhibit further attack from a predator." What disorder is being discussed?
the cognitive model does not account for
nocturnal panic attacks
Mrs. B tells her psychologist, "I cannot leave a certain region around my home without having terrible fears. I am terribly worried when I am in a car or in a bus. I am afraid I will have another one of those terrifying experiences." What disorder does Mrs. B probably have and what experience is she talking about?
the disorder is agoraphobia, the experience is a panic attack
which of the following is a sociocultural explanation for the higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women?
it is more acceptable for women to exhibit fear
the main well to tell someone is having an uncued panic attack rather than is in a state of fear is
if they have a subjective belief that something awful is about to happen
which of the following is a true statement about the recurrence of a depressive symptom
most individuals diagnosed with major depression will exhibit a recurrence
efforts to find the gene or genes that underlie bipolar disorder suggest that
multiple genes are involved
one factor that is especially likely to produce depression relapse is
behavior by a spouse that can be interpretted as criticism
a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder is best described as a _____ depressive disorder
according to Freud, depression
is a consequence of loss
which of the following is a hormonal abnormality associated with both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression
increased cortisol levels
george, a twenty-two-year-old mechanic, always seems to have a cloud over his head. For the past three years...
major depressive disorder
Nadia has been depressed for several months. She is considering cognitive therapy. What advice would you give her?
"many studies have shown the usefulness of cognitive therapy and it seems to prevent relapse."
the majority of individuals who ATTEMPT suicide are _____ and the majority of those who COMPLETE suicide are ____.
women and people between 18 and 24; men and people over the age of 65
which of the following is true
bipolar disorder is more strongly inherited that unipolar disorder
which of the following is not a symptom of major depressive disorder
bouts of anxiety
compared to anxiety, panic is
as discussed in your text, much evidence now suggests a number of biological causal factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder including all of the following EXCEPT
decreased activity in the orbital frontal cortex
"Fear of fear," fear of anger and depression, and fear of internal bodily sensations are all cognitive causal explanations for
which of the following neurochemical profiles has been associated with manic episodes?
low serotonin, high norepinephrine, high dopamine
a review of several studies found that ________ increased the likelihood of developing a more severe depression.
experiencing a stressful life event
angela has had several periods of extremely "up" moods. They last for a couple of weeks and she has gotten into trouble several times. During those times she doesn't sleep, spends way too much money, gets involved in bad business decisions, talks quickly and thinks even more quickly and believes she can do anything. The best diagnosis for Angela is
bipolar I disorder
gradual exposure to feared cues is
common component of treatment for all anxiety disorders
according to the psychoanalytic view, what makes generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) different from specific phobias?
defense mechanisms are not functional in GAD
jessica spends much of her day or saying certain words to herself. When she is not doing this, she is checking whether she left her doors unlocked. These symptoms illustrate
which of the following is true of unipolar major depression
it is the most prevalent mood disorder
betty is hyper-aware of such bodily sensations as heart rate and respiration rate. When she perceives heart or breathing as getting faster she becomes afraid that she is having a heart attack. These thoughts make her symptoms worse and she has a panic attack. Betty's pattern of thinking best illustrates
cognitive theory of panic
melissa is severly depressed and wants to commit suicide. If she is typical of most individuals who commit suicide
she is ambivalent about committing suicide
jacob and matt both flunk their math test. Jacob says to his friends that there is no point in his continuing in the course because the teacher just doesn't like him. Matt says he is going to drop the course because he is just stupid in math. According to the reformulated learned helplessness theory,
Matt is more likely to become depressed than Jacob
fear is a basic emotion that involves
the activation of the "fight or flight" response
parental loss only results in a vulnerability to depression when
poor parental care is a consequence of the loss
what are the two key moods involved in mood disorders
mania and depression
individuals who do not show a decrease in cortisol levels in response to an injection of dexamethasone
have an HPA axis that is not functioning normally
which of the following is not a brain area that has been found to exhibit abnormalities in depressed patients?
Diane's treatment for depression included training in meditation techniques that helped her become aware of her unwanted negative thoughts and to accept them as just thoughts. She was undergoing
mindfulness based cognitive therapy
Over the past two years, Kelly has experienced depressive episodes three different times. Two of the three episodes occurred in the winter and the third occurred last spring. It is now winter and Kelly's depressive symptoms once again are consistent with major depressive disorder. Which of the following diagnoses should she be given?
recurrent major depressive disorder
Reynaldo has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The most effective drug for him is
the average duration of an untreated episode of depression is
6 to 9 months
the main difference between a manic episode and a hypomanic episode is
the amount of social and occupational impairment
what is one of the major ways the anxiety disorders differ from each other
whether there are more fear/panic symptoms or anxiety symptoms involved
a rapid return of symptoms immediately after drug treatment is terminated is a common example of ________; a return to depressive symptoms after a period of spontaneous remission of symptoms is called a ________.
is more likely in children with a depressed parent
a hypomanic episode is best described as a
mild manic episode
while in treatment for panic disorder, Leroy is asked to engage in behaviors that activate the sympathetic nervous system. In other words, Leroy is engaging in behaviors that produce the physical sensation of fear. What type of treatment does this appear to be?
two months after her husband's death, Connie was still not herself. She often forgot to feed the dog, was late for work on a regular basis, and had not yet thrown out his clothes. Which of the following diagnoses would apply to Connie?
connie does not have a disorder
which statement about the risk of statement is true?
about hald of people who complete suicide do so during or in the recovery phase of a depressive episode
research on the role of genetics in the development of OCD suggests that
there may be "neurotic" personality factors that increase susceptibility to OCD
which of the following might explain why rates of depression are low in China and Japan?
symptoms of depression tend to be discussed as somatic
which of the following is a research finding that is inconsistent with the monoamine hypothesis of depression?
increases in noradrenergic activity have been seen in the brains of depressed patients
individuals who suffer from phobias
avoid the feared stimulus
which of the following seems to be the best treatment for phobias