Information Technology Chapters 1-3

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Intranet

An internal network based on Web technologies that allows people within an organization to exchange information and work on projects.

Extranet

A network based on Web technologies that allows selected outsiders, such as business partners and customers, to access authorized resources of a company's intranet.

Computer-based information system (CBIS)

A single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information.

Information System

A set of interreled components that collect, manipulate, store, and disseminate data and information and provide a feedback mechanizm to meet an objective. Can computerized or manual.

Components of an Info System

Input, Processing, Output, and Feedback

Hardware

The physical components of a computer that perform the input, processing, storage, and output activities of the computer.

Software

The computer programs that govern the operation of the computer. Two types: system software and application software.

Database

An organized collection of facts and information.

Telecommunications

The electronic transmission of signals for communications; enables organizations to carry out their processes and tasks through effective computer networks.

Networks

Computers and equipment that are connected in a building, around the country, or around the world to enable electronic communication.

E-commerce

Any business transaction executed electronically b/t companies, companies and consumers, consumers and other consumers, business and the public sector, and consumers and the public sector.

Mobile commerce

Transactions conducted anywhere, anytime.

Electronic business (e-business)

Using information systems and the Internet to perform all business-related tasks and functions.

Transaction Processing System

An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to perform and record business transactions.

Enterprise Resource Planning System

A set of integrated programs capable of managing a company's vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization.

Management Information System

An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices that provides routine information to managers and decision makers.

Decision Support System

An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision making.

Systems Development

The activity of creating or modifying existing business systems.

Value Chain

A series (chain) of activities that includes inbound logistics, warehouse and storage, production, finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales and customer service.

Upstream Management

managing raw materials, inbound logistics, and warehouse and storage facilities

Downstream Management

Managing finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service.

Technology Diffusion

A measure of how widely technology is spread throughout the organization.

Technology Infusion

The extent to which technology is deeply integrated into an area or department.

Technology Acceptance Model

A model that describes the factors leading to higher levels of acceptance and usage of technology.

Competitive advantage

A significant and (ideally) long-term benefit to a company over its competition.

Hardware components

Central processing unit, Arithmetic logic unit (ALU), and Control Unit.

Central Processing Unit

The part of the computer that consists of three associated elements: the arithmetic/logic unit, the control unit, and the register areas. Executing an instruction by the ____ involves two phases: the instruction phase and the execution phase.

Arithmetic/logic unit

The part of the CPU that performs mathematical calculations.

Control Unit

The part of the CPU that sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and out of the ALU, the registers, the primary storage, and even secondary storage and various output devices.

Green computing

A program concerned with the efficient and environmentally responsible design, manufacture, operation, and disposal of IS-related products.

Outsourcing

Hiring an outside company to perform some or all of a systems development project.

Systems software

the set of programs designed to coordinate the activities and functions of the hardware and various programs throughout the computer system. Interacts between hardware and application software.

Application software

consists of programs that help users solve particular computing problems. Can be proprietary or off the shelf.

Cloud computing

Allows people to get information they need from the Internet (the cloud) instead of from desktop or corporate computers. There is a public form and a private form.

Cost leadership

Deliver the lowest possible cost for products and services. Achieved by reducing the costs of raw materials through aggressive negotiations with suppliers, becoming more efficient w/ production and manufacturing processes, and reducing warehousing and shipping costs.

Clock speed

A series of electronic pulses produced at a predetermined rate that affects machine cycle time.

Byte

Eight bits that together represent a single character of data.

Random Access Memory (RAM)

A form of memory in which instructions or data can be temporarily stored.

Read-only memory

A nonvolatile form of memory.

Multicore processor

A microprocessor that combines two or more independent processors into a single computer so they can share the workload and improve processing capacity.

Parallel Processing

The simultaneous execution of the same task on multiple processors to obtain results faster.

Grid computing

The use of a collection of computers, often owned by multiple individuals or organizations, to work in a coordinated manner to solve a common problem.

Sequential Access

A retrieval method in which data must be accessed in the order in which it is stored.

Direct Access

A retrieval method in which data can be retrieved without the need to read and discard other data.

Magnetic Tape

A type of sequential secondary storage medium, now used primarily for strong backups of critical organizational data in the event of a disaster.

Magnetic Disk

A direct access storage device, with bits represented by magnetized areas.

Storage Area Network

A special-purpose, high-speed network that provides high-speed connections among data-storage devices and computers over a network.

Solid State Secondary Storage Device

Store data in memory chips rather than magnetic or optical media. Few moving parts and less fragile than hard disk drives.

Radio Frequency Identification

A technology that employs a microchip with an antenna to broadcast its unique identifier and location to receivers.

LCD displays

Flat display that uses liquid-crystals-organic, oil-like material placed between two polarizers-to form characters and graphic images on a backlit screen.

Organic light-emitting diode (OLED)

Flat display that used a layer of organic material sandwiched between two conductors, which, in turn, are sandwiched between a glass top plate and a glass bottom plate so that when electric current is applied to the two conductors, a bright, electro-luminescent light is produced directly from the organic material.

Digital Audio Player

A device that can store, organize, and play digital music files.

E-book

the digital media equivalent of a conventional printed book.

Thin client

A low-cost, centrally managed computer with essential but limited capabilities and no extra drives (such as CD or DVD drives) or expansion slots.

Hand-held computer

A single-user computer that provides ease of portability because of its small size.

Tablet computer

A portable, lightweight computer with no keyboard that allows you to roam the office, home, or factory floor carrying the device like a clip board.

Operating System

A set of computer programs that control the computer hardware and act as an interface with application programs. Can control one computer or multipole or can allow multiple users to interact with one computer.

Application Program Interface

An interface that allows applications to make use of the operating system. Programmers can use _______'s to create application software without having to understand the inner workings of the OS.

Scalability

Ability of the computer to handle an increasing number of concurrent users smoothly.

Utility Systems

Program that helps to perform maintenance or correct problems with a computer system.

Proprietary Software

One-of-a-kind software designed for a specific application and owned by the company, organization, or person that uses it.

Off-the-shelf software

Software mass-produced by software vendors to address needs that are common access businesses, organizations, or individuals.

Software as a Software

A service that allows businesses to subscribe to Web-delievered business applications software by paying a monthly service charge or a per-use fee.

Record

A collection of data fields all related to one object, activity, or individual.

Entity

A general class of people, places, or things for which data is collected, stored, and maintained.

Attribute

A characteristic of an entity.

Field

typically a name, number, or combination of characters that describes an aspect of a business object or activity.

Character

A basic building block of most information, consisting of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numeric digits, or special symbols.

Software Bug

A defect in a computer system that keeps it from performing as its designed to perform.

Traditional Approach to Data Management

An approach to data management whereby each distinct operational system used data files dedicated to that system.

Database approach to data management

An approach to data management whereby a pool of related data is shared by multiple information systems. Advantages: improved strategic use of corporate data, reduced data redundancy, improved data integrity, easier modification and updating.

Data center

A climate-controlled building or set of buildings that house database servers and the systems that deliver mission-critical information and services.

Data model

A diagram of data entities and their relationships.

data mart

A subset of a data warehouse, used by small and medium-sized businesses and departments within large companies to support decision making.

data mining

An information-analysis tool that involves the automated discovery of patterns and relationships in a data warehouse.

Data

Raw facts, such as an employee number, total hours worked in a week, inventory part numbers, or sales orders.

Information

A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the individual facts.

Knowledge

The awareness and understanding of a set of information and ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision.

Characteristics of Valuable Information

Accessible, Accurate, Complete, Economical, Flexible, Relevant, Reliable, Secure, Simple, Timely, Verifiable

Input

The activity of gathering and capturing raw data.

Processing

Converting or transforming data into useful outputs

Output

Production of useful information, usually in the form of documents and reports.

Feedback

Output that is used to make changes to input or processing activities.

Knowledge Management Systems

An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices, to create, store, share, and use the organization's knowledge and experience.

System implementation

Involves creating or acquiring the various system components (hardware, software, databases, etc.) defined in the design step, assembling them, and putting the new system into operation.

Sustaining Change

Can help an organization improve the supply of raw materials, the production process, and the products and services it offers.

Disruptive Change

Can completely transform an industry or create new ones,which can harm an organization's performance or even put it out of business.

Systems analyst

Help users determine what outputs they need from the system and construct plans for developing the necessary programs that produce these outputs.

Chief Information Officer (CIO)

Typically in charge of the information systems department or area in a company.

Personal productivity software

Software that enables users to improve their personal effectiveness, increasing the amount of work they can do and its quality.

Spreadsheets

Type of application software that contains optimization software.

Programming languages

Sets of keywords,symbols, and rules for constructing statements that people can use to communicate instructions to a computer.

Hierarchy of Data

Bits, characters, fields, records, files, and databases. Highest level is the database.

Data item

The specific value of an attribute.

Primary Key

A field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record.

Relational model

A database model that describes data in which all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables, called relations, which are the logical equivalent of files.

Selecting

Manipulating data to eliminate rows according to certain criteria.

Projecting

Manipulating data to eliminate columns in a table.

Joining

Manipulating data to combine two or more tables.

Linking

Data manipulation that combines two or more tables using common data attributes to form a new table with only the unique data attributes.

Data definition language

A collection of instructions and commands used to define and describe data and relationships in a specific database.

data dictionary

A detailed description of all the data used in the database.

Concurrency control

A method of dealing with a situation in which two or more users of applications need to access the same record at the same time.

data manipulation language

A specific language, provided with a DBMS, which allows users to access and modify the data, to make queries, and to generate reports.

Database administrator

Skilled and trained IS professional who directs all activities related to an organization's database.

database management system

A group of programs that manipulate the database and provide an interface between the database and the user of the database and other application programs. (DBMS)

Front end application

Application that people interact with directly.

Back end application

Application that interacts with other programs and applications and only indirectly interacts with people or users.

Database as a Service

A trend in database management that places the responsibility of storing and managing a database on a service provider.

Data warehouse

A large database that collects business information from many sources in the enterprise, covering all aspects of the company's processes, products, and customers, in support of management decision making.

Predictive analysis

A form of data mining that combines historical data with assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events, such as future product sales or the probability that a customer will default on a loan.

Business intelligence

The process of gathering enough of the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it to have a positive impact on business strategy, tactics, or operations.

Online analytical processing (OLAP)

Software that allows users to explore data from a number of perspectives.

Accessible

Information should be easily _______ by authorized users so they can obtain it in the right format and at the right time to meet their needs.

Accurate

_____ information is error free.

Complete

______ information contains all the important facts.

Economical

Information should also be relatively ________to produce. Decision makers must always balance the value of information with the cost of producing it.

Secure

Information should be _______from access by unauthorized users.

Process

Set of logically related tasks.

Valuable Information

Can help people and their organizations perform tasks more efficiently and effectively.

Internet

World's largest computer network, consisting of thousands of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information.

People

The most important element in most computer-based information systems

Procedures

Include strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using the CBIS

System design

determines how the new systems should be developed to meet the business needs defined during systems analysis.

systems maintenance and review

Purpose is to check and modify the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs.

customer relationship management

programs that help companies of all sizes manage all aspects of customer encounters, including marketing and advertising, sales, customer service after the sale, and programs to retain loyal customers. ___ software uses a variety of information sources, including sales from retail stores, surveys, e-mail, and Internet browsing habits, to compile comprehensive customer profiles. Can also get customer feedback to help design new products and services.

Productivity

A measure of the output achieved divided by the input required.

User satisfaction

Depends on the quality of the system and the value of information it delivers to users.

Organizational culture

The major understandings and assumptions for a business, corporation, or other organization.

Organizational change

How for-profit and nonprofit organizations plan for, implement, and handle change.

Redundant array of independent/inexpensive disks (RAID):

Method of storing data that generates extra bits of data from existing data

mainframe computer

Large, powerful computer shared by hundreds of concurrent users connected to the machine over a network

Supercomputers

The most powerful computers with the fastest processing speed and highest performance

Sphere of influence

Scope of problems and opportunities addressed by a particular organization

Workgroup

When two or more people work together to achieve a common goal

Graphical user interface (GUI):

Uses icons and menus displayed on screen to send commands to the computer system

Command-based user interface

Requires that text commands be given to the computer to perform basic activities

User interface

Allows individuals to access and command the computer system

logical design

Abstract model of how data should be structured and arranged to meet an organization's information needs

Physical design

Starts from the logical database design and fine-tunes it for performance and cost considerations

Structured Query Language (SQL):

Adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as the standard query language for relational databases

Distributed database

Database in which the data may be spread across several smaller databases connected via telecommunications devices

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