a model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
a special kind of map that distorts the shapes and sizes of countries or other political regions to present economic or other kinds of data for comparison.
A complete enumeration of a population.
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
crude birth rate
the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
crude death rate
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration
this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
demographic transistion model
sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth & death rates to low birth & death rates though time
demographic transistion model
Stage 1: Low Growth, High Death and Birth, Stage 2: High Growth, High Birth, Falling Death, Stage 3: Moderate Growth, Falling Birth, Low Death, Stage 4: Low Growth, Low Birth and Death
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
A more localized disease that causes death
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease
at a very fast rate
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
infant mortality rate
the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR or RNI)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rates minus the crude death rates.
A belief that the world is characterized by scarcity and competition in which too many people fight for too few resources. Named for Thomas Malthus, who predicted a dismal cycle of misery, vice, and starvation as a result of human overpopulation
having more people in a given area than the resources can support
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
a measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
Spatial distribution of people on Earth's surface.
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century
predicts the future population of an area or the world. Helps predict future problems with population such as overpopulation or under population of a certain race or ethnicity.
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
18th and 19th century English economist: Said that population tends to increase more rapidly than food supplies
total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.
zero population growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero, crude birth rate is equal to crude death rate.