By the early twentieth century this old Turkish Empire, still ruled by a sultan, controlled much of the near and middle east including Palestine, Syria, and present day Iraq and Kuwait.
Ibn- Rushd (Averroes)
1126?-98, Arab philosopher in Spain.
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in Chine in 1368; lasted until 1644; intially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal developments within China
Admiral( a Moslim Chinese) who commanded the great Indian Ocean expeditions, between 1045 and 1433.
The Black Death was a mid-fourteenth century disease epidemic that ravaged Europe and helped cause an economic decline. This outbreak of the pneumonic form of the bubonic plague killed perhaps a third of Europe's population.
The Renaissance was the major cultural movement in Europe during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries that began in the city-states of Italy and spread to other parts of the continent. Sharing a "rebirth" of interest in the classical civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome, many artists of the period produced notable works in painting, sculpture, architecture, writing, and music.
Portugal, Castile, and Aragon
The united kingdom which came into existence by the marriage (1469) of Isabella, heiress of Castile, with Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon. Columbus made his voyages of discovery as the agent of the "Catholic Kings" (los Reyes Católicos) of this united kingdom, which in the course of history became the Kingdom of Spain — or, more precisely, of the Spains.
one of the major literary figures of the Western Renaissance; an Italian author and humanist.
Two Genoese brothers who attempted to find a Western route to the "indies"; disappeared in 1291; precursors of thrust into southern Alantic
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince responsible for direction of series of expeditions along the African coast in the 15th century; marked beginning of Western European expansion
conviction of own cultural superiority: a belief in or assumption of the superiority of the social or cultural group that a person belongs to ( disapproving )