opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independent states
Articles of Confederation
created a weak national government that could not levy taxes or regulate commerce
A government in which one leader or group of people holds absolute power
2 houses (house of reps. and house of congress)
Bill of Rights
list of indiv. rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press
Checks and Balances
power of the legislature, exec., and jud. branches of govt. to block some acts by the other two branches.
Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes. These grants have strings attached. (Compare to block grants)
concurrent powers/shared powers
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
great compromise/connecticut compromise
reconciled the interests of small and large states- one predominates senate, other house. 2 reps in senate, population in house.
1789 written document supporting people's rights
meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise AOC
Declaration. of independence
1776 written document declaring the United States of America free from the rule of the British king, This document was adopted on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document.
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
ex: welfare, health care, and job training.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme in their own areas, each responsible for some policies.(layer of govt is separated like layer cake)
the part of the Constitution that allows Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
according to james madison, a group of people who seek to influence public policy in ways opposite to the public good.
federalist papers 10 and 51
Both written by James Madison: (1) outlines the need for and general principles of a democratic republic. Also provides a political and economic analysis of the realities of interest group or faction politics (considered one of most important documents in Am History). (2) Defends separation of powers and the republican process.
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Federal money given to states with only general guidelines for its use. The states have the authority to decide how the money will be spent.
Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution. The Constitution states that congress has the power to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" the powers enumerated in Article I.
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
political authority conferred by law, public opinion, or const., hereditary right of a monarch to rule
In this type of government everyone, including all authority figures, must obey laws. Constitutions, statements of rights, or other laws define the limits of those in power so they cannot take advantage of the elected, appointed, or inherited positions.
a person who interprets the constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take actions that the constitution does NOT specifically forbid it from taking.
A member of the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention, he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers , which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. The fourth President of the United States. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
rules imposed by the federal govt. on the states as the requirements that the states pay the costs of certain nationally defined programs.
mcculloch v. maryland
An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. In deciding this case, Chief Justice John Marshall and his colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution.
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
"Necessary and proper" clause
Constitutional clause that gives congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its powers
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
Prohibited Powers/denied powers
the powers that are denied to the federal government, the state government, or both; also called restricted powers
Rule of Law
principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
Separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society. People agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others,
the state has supreme and absolute authority within its territorial boundaries
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take ONLY those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
Supremacy clause/National Supremacy
A constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government prevail.
Federal System of government
a system in which power is shared among state and national authorities
national govt. government it weak,power in hands of individual states
powers not given to the federal gov. are given to the states or people
natural rights that belong to everyone and cannot be taken away
A political system in which all or most citizens participate directly either by holding office or making policy. The town meeting, in which citizens vote on major issues is an example of direct democracy.
A theory that bureaucrats make the key governing decisions. According to this theory the influence of government bureaucracies has become so great that elected officials are almost powerless to affect policy.
A theory that no one interest group consistently holds political power. For example, there are so many corporate leaders and business owners that they all have political power in some way
A small group of influential people who make a nation's major political decisions. For example, the republican party has a unequal share of power because somepeople have more power than others
principles of democracy
rule of law, limited government, consent of the governed, individual rights, representative government
the good of a community
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
2/3 vote in congress, 3/4 of states
consent of the governed
government must have some approval by the people
a system in which the ideas and decisions supported by the most people are followed
the idea that political authority belongs to the people
the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality
powers the Constitution denies to the national government
Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people
powers that congress has that are specifically listed in the constitution
The section of the Constitution in which Congress is given the power to regulate trade among the states and with foreign countries.
full faith and credit
A clause in Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states.
Powers and policies are shared by both federal and state governments; "marble cake" federalism, The situation in which the national, state, and local levels work together to solve problems.
States must return people to a state from which they fled to avoid criminal prosecution at the request of that state's gov
Privileges and Immunities
the guarantees that the rights of a citizen in one state will be respected by other states.
The workings of the federal system- the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments.
Federal categorical grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications
A grant-in-aid in which a formula is used to determine the amount of federal funds a state or local government will receive.
a nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state
Traditional Democratic Theory
These principles include equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, citizen control of agenda, & inclusion.
A list of issues that need government attention.
link people's concern to government. parties, elections, media, interests groups
When nothing is accomplished because both sides of a debate cannot come to an agreement on issues.
many groups are so strong that government is weakened
Elite and class Theory
Societies are divided along class lines and that upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal nicieties of governmental organization
Political system that would run without any outside influence (no God or a king).Humans are all selfish (biblical). "if men were angels there would be no government." They didn't expect us to be good.
representation is based on state's share of the american population
New jersey Plan
states got an equal number of representatives in Congress
Writ of habeas Corps
congress cannot vote to put someone in jail without a good reason
ex post facto laws
punishing a crime that happened before the law was made
Cannot allow only a certain religion to enter office
narrowly defined, and difficult to convict, actions against one's country
An informal way in which the Constitution is changed by which judges modify the force of a constitutional provision by reinterpreting its meaning.
Marbury V. Madison
u.s. supreme court case that established the principle of jucicial review
Gibbons v Ogden
broadly defined commerce to be every form of business