Anatomy Chapter 2 Vocabulary

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Homestead High School Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2 vocabulary flash cards.

Elements

all matter is composed of substances called..._______

Atom

the smallest, stable unit of matter

Protons

have a positive electrical charge

Neutrons

are neutral - uncharged

Electrons

are only 1/1836 as massive as protons and have a negative electrical charge

Atomic number

the number of protons in an atom is known as it's...._______

Nucleus

the proton is located in the center of the atom and form the..._______

Electron cloud

In a hydrogen atom, a single electron orbits the nucleus at high speed, forming an....________ __________

Electron shell

the electron cloud is usually represented as a spherical...______ ________

Isotopes

the atoms of a given element differ in terms of the number of neutrons in the nucleus

Mass number

the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

Atomic weight

the average mass of an element's atoms

Chemical bonds

hold the participating atoms together once a reaction has ended

Molecules

chemical structures that contain more than one atom bonded together by shared electrons

Compound

any chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more elements

Ions

atoms or molecules that have an electric charge

Cations

Ions with a positive charge (+)

Anions

Ions with a negative charge (-)

Ionic bonds

chemical bonds created by the electrical attraction between anions and cations

Surface tension

the attraction between water molecules at a free surface slows the rate of evaporation and creates the phenomenon known as...._________ ________

Chemical reaction

new chemical bonds form between atoms or existing bonds between atoms are broken

Metabolism

refers to all of the chemical reactions in the body

Energy

the capacity to perform work

Kinetic energy

the energy of motion

Potential energy

stored energy

Decomposition reaction

breaks a molecule into smaller fragments

Hydrolysis

one of the bonds in a complex molecule is broken

Catabolism

the decomposition reactions of complex molecules within cells

Synthesis

the opposite of decomposition

Dehydration synthesis (condensation)

the formation of a complex molecule by the removal of water

Anabolism

the synthesis of new compounds in the body

Exchange reaction

a reaction in which parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled

Equilibrium

the rates of the two reactions are in balance

Activation energy

the amount of energy required to start a reaction

Enzymes

speed up reactions that support life (belong to the class of catalysts)

Catalysts

compounds that accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently changed

Nutrients

essential elements and molecules obtained from diet

Metabolites

all of the molecules synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside our bodies

Inorganic compounds

small molecules that generally do not contain carbon and hydrogen atoms

Organic compounds

primary composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms

Ionization

a process in which ionic bonds are broken apart as individual ions interact with the positive or negative ends of polar water molecules.

pH

the concentration of hydrogen ions

Acid

any substance that breaks apart in solution to RELEASE hydrogen ions

Strong acids

acids that dissociates completely in solution

Base

a substance that removes hydrogen ions from a solution

Strong base

bases that dissociate completely in solution

Salt

an ionic compound consisting of any cation except a hydrogen ion and any anion except a hydroxide ion

Electrolytes

inorganic compounds whose ions can conduct an electrical current in solution

Buffers

compounds that stabilize pH by either removing or replacing hydrogen ions

Carbohydrate

an organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio near 1:2:1

Simple sugar (monosaccharide)

a carbohydrate containing from three to seven carbon atoms

Disaccharide

two monosaccharides joined together

Polysaccharides

large carbohydrate molecules

Glycogen

a polysaccharide composed of interconnected glucose molecules

Lipids

fats, oils, and waxes

Fatty acids

long chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms

Steroids

large lipid molecules composed of four connected rings of carbon atoms

Phospholipids

consist of a glycerol and two fatty acids linked to a nonlipid group by a phosphate group

Structural proteins

create a three-dimensional framework for the body, providing strength, organization, and support for cells, tissues, and organ

Contractile proteins

responsible for muscular contraction

Hormones

influence the metabolic activities of every cell in the body

Antibodies

protect us from disease

Clotting proteins

restrict bleeding following an injury to the cardiovascular system

Amino acids

proteins are long chains of organic molecules called...._____ _____

Peptides

molecules made up of amino acids held together by peptide bonds

Substrates

the reactants in an enzymatic reaction

Active site

the substrates must bind to a special region of the enzyme called the...._______ ______

Nucleic acids

large organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.

Complementary base pairs

adenine-thymine and cytosine-guanine

Double helix

structure of the DNA

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

the most important high-energy compound

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