The outermost layer of skin. No nerves or blood supply has 5 layers
The layer of skin immediately beneath the epidermis.
The fatty layer of tissue located beneath the dermis
cell responsible for producing melanin
A black or dark pigment (produced by melanocytes within the epidermis) contributes to the color of the skin protects from uv rays.
How many layers of the epidermis are there?
What does melanin in red hair contain?
Linear tear in the dermis "stretch marks"
Soft downy hair on babies
crescent moon shape on nail
also called the oil gland
also called the sweat gland
Oil, need for lubricating hair and keeping the skin soft and waterproof
Visable portion of the nail
nourishes nail/blood supply, grows nail
A hard, water repellent protein (waterproofing the body)
Hair loss or male pattern baldness
basal cell carcinoma
A malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a slightly elevated nodule with a depression or ulceration in the center that become more obvious as the tumor grows. As the depression enlarges, the tissue breaks down, crusts and bleeds. The most common malignant tumor of the epithelial tissue.
genital warts (venereal warts)
What is the most common type of skin cancer?
basal cell carcinoma
1st degree burn
Redness and swelling of the epidermis, painful, heal spontaneously with peeling in about 3 to 6 days and produce no scar
2nd degree burn
Sensitive painful blisters, pink to red color and some swelling, involve the epidermis and the upper layer of the dermis
3rd degree burn
Full thickness burn. Charred skin, no pain . May include part of the subcutaneous tissue or muscle.
Removal of debris, foreign objects and damaged tissue
aspiration of fat
squamous cell carcinoma
Cancer of the squamous (or scalel-ike) cells of the epithelial tissue which is a much faster growing cancer than basal cell carcinoma and which has a greater potential for metastasis if not treated.
highly malignant cancer, originating from melanocytes in preexisting nevi, freckles, or skin with pigment; darkly pigment cancerous tumor
electrodesiccation and curettage
A combination procedure of curettage that involves scraping away abnormal tissue and electrodesiccation, which involves destroying the tumor base with a low-voltage electrode.
Small solid, circumscribed elevation on the skin
A small, flat discoloration of the skin that is neither raised nor depressed.
A small elevation of the skin filled with pus, a small abscess on the skin
A circumscribed, open sore or lesion of the skin that is accompanied by inflammation (bedsore)
aka boil. Pus producing infection deep in the hair follicle
Tear in the skin, jagged or straight
Hardened epithelium that are raised
An acute, recurrent, inflammatory infections transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick. Characterized by a circular rash (a red, itch rash with a circular center) and influenza-like symptoms; weakness, chills, fever, headaches.
The main shaft-like portion of the bone
The end of a bone
3 types of muscle tissue:
Voluntary, polynucleated, striated and work in pairs
single nucleus, visceral muscles, involuntary
single nucleaus, striated in appearance. Forms the wall of the heart and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Involuntary
3 types of bone cells
Immature bone cells that actively produce bony tissue
Mature bone cells
Large cells that absorb or digest old bone tissue
2 types of bone marrow
Red bone marrow
Yellow bone marrow
What takes place in the bone marrow?
hematopoiesis. The normal formation and development of blood cells in the red bone marrow
The thick, white, fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a long bone.
5 types of bone
long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid
A strong fibrous band of tissue that extends from a muscle, attaching it to the bone by becoming continuous with the periosteum of the bone.
What do tendons attach?
Muscle to bone
Where does blood cell formation happen?
In the red bone marrow
What bones make up the pelvic girdle?
Ilium, ischium, sacrum, coccyx, pubis, symphysis pubis, iliac crest, hip bone
inflammation of one or more joints
A form of acute arthritis that is characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe. A hereditary disease in which the patient does not metabolize uric acid
space between the bones of an infant's cranium. "Soft spot"
The rupture of the central portion, or nucleus, of the disk through the disk wall and into the spinal canal. AKA ruptured disk or slipped disk.
The socket that serves as the connecting point for the femur and the hip
the space between the ribs
a lateral curvature of the spine
Commonly seen in osteoporosis. an abnormal outward curvature of a portion of the spine. Commonly called hunch back or hump back aka dowager's hump.
An abnormal inward curvature of a portion of the spine. Commonly known as sway back
aka a stress fracture. A minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment. The fracture appears on an x-ray as a very thing "hair line" between the two segments. Does not extend through he entire surface of the bone.
When a direct force caused the bone to break forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the larger bone.
A break that occurs when the force is so great that it splinters or crushes a segment of the bone
A break that does not extend through the entire thickness of the bone and it's considered an incomplete fracture. One side of the bone is broken, the other side is bent.
A simple fracture that remains under the skin.
aka compound fracture, in which there is a break in a bone as well as an open wound in the skin.
A fracture occurs at the end of the radius within one inch of the wrist bone
Caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other as in the compression of one vertebra against another. Often seen in osteoporosis.
What's another name for visceral muscles?
What's the white protective outer covering of bone called?
hard outer shell of the bone
A bending motion. Decreases the angle between two bones.
A straightening motion. Increases the angle between two bones
The movement that involves the turning of a bone on its own axis. (move head from side to side )
The movement of an extremity around in a circular motion. This motion can be performed with ball and socket joints as in the shoulder and hip.
Narrows the angle between the leg and the top of the foot. (toes pointed up)
increases the angle between the leg and the top of the foot. (toes pointed down)
movement of the bone away from the midline of the body
movement of the bone toward the midline of the body.
AKA degenerative joint disease. The most common form of arthritis and results from wear and tear on the joints, especially weight bearing joints, such as the hips and knees.
A chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease that affects multiple joints of the body, mainly the small peripheral joints such as in those of the hands and feet.
The act of turning the palm down or backward
the act of turning the palm up or forward
3 layers of meninges
Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
a nerve cell
Severe, sharp, spasm like pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves
central nervous system, contains the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system, 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
A protective sheath that covers the axons of many nerves in the body. It acts as an electrical insulator and helps to speed the conduction of nerve impulses.
A chemical substance within the body that activates or inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses at synapses
(acute bacterial) a serious bacterial infection of the meninges.
An abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain that causes the ventricles of the brain to dilate, resulting in an increased head circumference in the infant with open fontanel's; a congenital disorder. aka water on the brain. It is often a complication of another disease or disorder, like spina bifida cystica.
Inflammation of the brain or spinal cord tissue largely caused by a virus that enters the CNS when the person experiences a viral disease such as measles or mumps or through the bite of a mosquito or tick.
Elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrum
Depressions or shallow grooves on the surface of an organ; as the grooves between any of the convolutions or elevations in the cerebrum
The think outer layer of nerve tissue, known as gray matter, that covers the surface of the cerebrum.
The largest and uppermost part of the brain. It controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, and voluntary movements.
The part of the brain responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movement; located behind the brain stem
The stemlike portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemisphere with the spinal cord. Contains the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata.
The part of the brain located between the cerebrum and the midbrain. Its main structures consist of the thalamus, hypothalamus and the pineal gland.
Petit mal seizure
A small seizure in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consciousness lasting only a few seconds; also known as an absence seizure.
Grand mal seizure
An epileptic seizure characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness and by generalized involuntary muscular contraction, vacillating between rigid body extension and an alternating contracting and relaxing of muscles.
aka grand mall seizure
transient ischemic attack
transient ischemic attack
Brief periods of ischemia in the brain, lasting from minutes to hours, which can cause a variety of symptoms. (aka mini strokes)
involves death of a specific portion of brain tissue, resulting from a decrease in blood flow (ischemia) to that area of the brain; aka stroke
A state of mind in which the individual feels increased tension, apprehension, a painfully increased sense of helplessness, a feeling of uncertainty, fear, jitteriness, and worry.
An involuntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from one's conscious mind.
The voluntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from one's mind.
re-channeling or redirecting one's unacceptable impulses and drives into constructive activities.
Attempting to make excuses or invent logical reasons to justify unacceptable feelings o behaviors; most commonly used defense mechanism
An effort to overcome, or make up for real or imagined inadequacies
A refusal to admit or acknowledge the reality of something, thus avoiding emotional conflict or anxiety.
A progressive, organic mental disorder characterized by chronic personality disintegration, confusion, disorientation, stupor, deterioration of intellectual capacity and function, and impairment of control of memory, judgment, and impulses.
Can be tested by stroking the sole of the foot, beginning at midheel and moving upward and lateral to the toes. A positive babinski's occurs when there is dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning of the other toes.