A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study.
A system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations.
Describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable.
The persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study.
Data collection techniques
Procedures for making empirical observations and measurements.
A periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry.
Consist of various approaches to the observation, manipulation, measurement, and control of variables in empirical studies.
Research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result.
A condition or event that an experimenter manipulates in order to see its impact on another variable.
The variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable.
Consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable.
Consists of subjects who do not receive the special treatment.
Any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study.
Confounding of variables
Occurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects.
Occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study.
A researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects.
Researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants' behavior.
The use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data.
Used to organize and summarize data.
The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores.
Arithmetic average of the scores in distribution.
Most frequent score in distribution.
Refers to how much the scores in a data set vary from each other and from the mean.
An index of the amount of variability in a set of data.
Exists when two variables are related to each other.
Numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables.
Used to interpret data and draw conclusions.
Is said to exist when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low.
The repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated.
The collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study.
Exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn.
Occurs when participants' expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment.
Social desirability bias
A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
A tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions.
Occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained.
A research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which groups are in the experimental or control groups.
In depth investigation of an individual subject.