Crucial Stage in Human development, first modern humans
Location of earliest town
Stone Age. Paleolithic, Neolithic
When humans begin using stone tools. Paleolithic: Old and Neolithic: New
Who interbred with homosapiens? what did they do?
Neanderthals. Bury dead, make jewelery, cave paintings
Hunter Gatherers characteristics
Hunted Animals, gathered plants, always on move, could not make city.
New Stone Age. "Growth of Agriculture"
What happens when the Ice Age ends?
everything gets warmer. People can settle now. Food. Trades and growing societies.
complex culture where humans share a variety of common elements
Neolithic Settlement, No roads, bodies buried below houses. Houses made of clay. People walked on roofs to get from place to place
One of the oldest known agricultural villages. City with a thick wall that enclosed houses
When pottery was dug up, what did it mean?
Meant people were storing food, they were settled
creators of Mesopotamian civilization
First Real civilization. Build temples-Zigguart, Speak language, considered real people
Ubaid Culture/Uruk Period
Build dikes/irrigation, pottery, temples, priestly classes emerge
Polythiest, they need to please Gods or will get destroyed
What were the Gods of Sumer like?
Angry, constantly want to be pleased
Cuneiform Writing. Historical Written records. Reed pen in clay, lines and accents
Most famous Cuneiform
Epic of Gilgamesh(Noah and Ark)
Sparked by Gods. Copper Swords. Most weapons made out of Bronze
First Empire. Sumerian Culture Spreads. Symitic Language. Emperor is now ruler
Emperor of Akkadians
Sargon of Akkad
Bigger empire to take over Akkandians
characteristics of Babylonians leader
Hammurabi. smart, good at making friends
God of Babylonians
What Hammurabi is best known for. Set of laws
3000-1200BC. Use wheels now, calender of 12 months, new trade routes. Sumerian Culture Spreads
Another main civilization. Much slower to flourish. Use Nile River for everything. Lasts own empire for 5000 years.
Two egyptian kingdoms united under 1 pharaoh who viewed himself as god.
What emerged in Archaic Egypt?
Hieroglyphics- pictures and papyrus- flattened river reeds
Where hieroglyphics were translated. Founded by French. Greek language was on stone
(2686-2160 BC) first major dynasty of pharaohs. Step pyramids built at Giza. Hard to build-drain economy
Egyptian Peasant Life
Pictures put into burial chambers. Eat grain-beer
God of Dead. Myth associated with him. King of Afterlife kills him, cuts him up. Isis gathers up pieces and bring him back to life. Have child Horus together
Assosiated with Child birth and maturnity, saves Osiris
Son that Isis and Osiris have together. Horus kills seth and becomes king of underworld.
egyptian spirit. "Ka" needs to be put in right place in underworld.
Positive Outcomes in afterlife
Mummification, tomb building, grave gods. Help preserve body.
First Intermediate Period
2160-2055 BC. Famine happens. Pharoh dies so no real ruler. Desperate for ruler, when they get one, famine resides
2055-1650. Defensive Time period. Egyptians are nervous. Afraid of outsiders. Fortifications are built
Second Intermediate Period
Invasion!! Hyksos come. Become rulers for 100 years. Strongest Egyptian male to get rid of Hyksos becomes new pharoh.
More confident. Won't let anyone else invade. 18th Dynasty. Expand influence up coastal areas
New country found by Newbians. Mine and dig gold, enrich government.
Only female pharoh ever. Ruled over several major victorious wars. Her temple was MASSIVE
Temple of Amun at Karnak
Named after god of sun. More wealth=more slaves to build temples.
Most important God of New Kingdom
Amon Ra (God of Sun)
Pharoh who didn't want Amon Ra as God anymore. Main God is now Aten. (Sun disk) Moves capital to El Armana
Son of Akhenaten, changes God back to Amon Ra. Previous Temples destroyed
New Pharoh. Most powerful one, Helps economy come back strong. Makes peace treaty with powerful group called Hitties. Helps move things along faster
Bible story. Believed one god made everything. Ten commandments
Two Kingdoms in Isreal
Kingdom of Isreal/Judah
King of Isreal that was replaced quickly
David vs. Goliath
Hebrew vs. Philistine. David defeats huge Goliath with a slingshot, becomes new king of Hebrews
What year does David become king of Hebrew?
What did David do as king?
Unites Isreal and Judah into one land. Founded first capital known as Jeruselum
Ark of Covenant
Stone on which the ten commandments were carved. Housed by a temple King Solomon built
Son of David. Mined with slaves and got $$$ from gold
Only god they worshiped. God of all things. Yahweh Cult
Aggressive, brutal fighters with paid standing army. Take over a lot of land
Ruler of Assyrians?
669-627. tried to leave world w/ good memory of Assyrians. Built libraries and roads
What is a revolt?
When people release they have nothing to loose so they go against rulers and kill people
Two groups of people that revolted against Assyrians
Helps Greeks make language
Created purple dye
Chaldean King defeated Assyrians. Destroys temple and takes over Jerusulam. Sends people into Babylonian captivity
Take over more land than Assyrians. Bring Hebrews back that were sent into exile. Seem to be nicer
First persian king. Allow people do have their one religion, do their own thing so no revolts are caused
Next king of Persians. Built huge roads, had spy system, more of an administrator, less of a conqueror.
Persian Religion, relating to Christianity. One good god and one evil god that will take you if you do bad things
Good god of persian religion.