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40 cards

atom

basic unit of matter.

nucleus

the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's activities.

electron

negatively charged particle;located outside the atomic nucleus.

element

substance consisting entirely of one type of atom.

isotope

atom of an element that has a number of neutrons different from that of other atoms of the same element.

compound

substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.

ionic bond

bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.

ion

atom that has a positive or negative charge.

covalent bond

bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms.

molecule

smallest unit of most compounds.

van der Waals forces

a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules.

cohesion

attraction between molecules of the same substance.

adhesion

attraction between molecules of different substances; in plants, attraction between unlike molecules.

mixture

material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined.

solution

mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed.

solvent

substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.

suspension

mixture of water and nondissovled materials.

pH scale

measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14

acid

compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution.

base

compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH+) in solution.

buffer

weak acid or base that cna react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.

monomer

small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers.

polymer

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.

carbohydrate

compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body.

monosaccharide

single sugar molecule.

polysoccharide

large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides.

lipid

macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes.

nucleic acid

macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.

nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.

ribonucleic acid (RNA)

single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose.

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose.

protein

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes.

amino acid

compound with an amino group (-NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end.

chemical reaction

process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals.

reactant

element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction.

product

element or compound produced by a chemical reaction.

activation energy

energy needed to get a reaction started.

catalyst

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.

enzyme

protein that acts as a biological catalyst.

substrate

reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

solute

substance that is dissovled in a solvent to make a sollution.

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