Law of Segregation
Mendel's first law. Homologous genes separate from one another during reproduction and that each reproductive cell carries only one of the homologous genes.
Mendel's second law. The hereditary transmission of one gene has no effect on the transmission of another.
Process of DNA to RNA
Process of RNA to amino acids
A type of aneuploidy. A cell containing three copies of a chromosome. An example of this is Down Syndrome
The process by which the exons of the RNA produced by transcription of a gene are reconnected in multiple ways during RNA splicing. Therefore, a single gene may code for multiple proteins.
Degeneracy of genetic code
Redundancy of the genetic code. There are 4 nucleotides that can be arranged in combinations of three. Therefore we have 64 possible codons but only 20 amino acids.
A base pair substitution, In which one nucleotide is switched for another. Causes a change in amino acid sequence.
When there is a base pair substitution but the amino acid does not change because of redundancy.
A point mutation when a stop codon is formed instead of an amino acid.
The insertion of deletion of a base pair. Causes a shift in all of the codons to follow.
When arms of homologous chromosome pairs intertwine and exchange portions of their DNA during the first meiotic stage. A new combination of alleles can be formed.
The process of forming new arrangements of alleles when crossing over occurs.
The outward appearance of an individual, which is the result of both genotype and the environment.
The composition of genes at a given locus.
The allele whose effects are observable.
The allele whose effects are said to be hidden.
What the locus is said to exhibit when the heterozygote is distinguishable from both homozygotes.
Pertaining to a chromosome (1-22) or trait that is not linked to sex chromosomes (23)
Traits linked to the sex-chromosomes
The one individual in a family that begins a pedigree. (Propositus-male, Proposita-female)
The process by which one of the two copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.
Percentage of individuals with a specific genotype who also exhibit the expected phenotype.
The variation in allelic expression when the allele is penetrant.
The collection of chemical modifications that can produce dramatically different phenotypes from the same DNA sequence.
When an individual shows a genetic phenotype because of environmental factors.
Any factor that is not related to genetics.
Traits in which variation is thought to be caused by the combined effects of multiple genes.
The set of genes with which a gene of interest is associated. Recombination moves genes from one genetic background to another.
When environmental factors are also believed to cause variations in the trait.
Both genetic and non-genetic factors influences the likelihood of developing a common disease.
Studying genetics that are multifactorial like blood pressure and height.
The proportion of phenotypic variation in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals.
Incidence rate of the disease among individuals exposed to a risk factor / Incidence rate of the disease among individuals NOT exposed to a risk factor
When a child is born with a disease, it is the probability that subsequent children in that family are born with that same disease.
Marriage between related individuals. A factor in producing children with recessive diseases.