Cell (cytoplasmic) membrane (of prokaryotic anatomy)
critical barrier that allows the cell to
exist by allowing the inside of the
cell to be different from the outside
of the cell (of prokaryotic anatomy)
Cell wall (of prokaryotic anatomy)
structure outside of
the membrane that provides
support for the membrane and
protection for the cell. (of prokaryotic anatomy)
ribosomes (of prokaryotic anatomy)
Macromolecular complexes composed of RNA and
protein (and the site of protein
synthesis in all organisms.) (of prokaryotic anatomy)
nucleoid (of prokaryotic anatomy)
Region in the cell where DNA is found. ( In
prokaryotes there is no membrane
surrounding this region.) (of prokaryotic anatomy)
flagella (of prokaryotic anatomy)
composed of a single coiled tube of
one protein, flagellin. (The flagellum
works like a propeller-it is rigid.) (of prokaryotic anatomy)
Inclusion (of prokaryotic anatomy)
storage of nutrients. (Several different types. Examples
are lipid, sulfur, phosphate.) (of prokaryotic anatomy)
coccus, rod, spirilium
Major prokaryotic cell morphologies
0.2 µm to >700 µm in diameter (size range for
eukaryotic cells: 10 to >200 µm in diameter)
Size range for prokaryotes
1. nutrients and waste products pass more readily into and out of small cell than a large cell.
2. Faster cellular metabolism and growth
Per unit of available resources, small cells develop
3. More adaptive flexibility to changing environmental condition.
advantages of bacterial cells to be small
smaller (0.2 - 0.4 µm in diameter)
Open oceans tend to contain cells that are___
bacteria that are said to be cell-walled
microorganisms with a diameter well
below the generally accepted lower limit
(about 200) for bacteria.
cell (Cytoplasmic) membrane details
thin structure that surrounds the cell. Highly selective permeable barrier(: enables concentration of specific
metabolites and excretion of waste product)
cell (Cytoplasmic) membrane structure
what has a bilayer of phospholipids
- Contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic components.
- Can exist in many different chemical forms as a result of variation in the groups attached to the glycerol backbone.
Mg 2+ and Ca 2+
what elements help stabilize the cell membrane by forming ionic bonds with negative charges on the phospholipid?
Sterols or Hopanoids
what regulates the fluidity of phospholipid bilayers
by stabilizing the membrane and thus regulates its flexibility?
eukaryotes, methanotrophs, and mycoplasma
sterols are found in___
hopanoids are found in___
glycerol diethers and diglycerol tetraether
what are the two major lipids of archaea?
integral (membrane proteins) and peripheral (membrane proteins)
what are the two groups of membrane proteins?
what integral membrane protein
span the entire membrane
integral monotopic membrane
what integral membranes are permanently attached
to the membrane from only one side
which functions (of cytoplasmic membrane) prevents leakage and functions as a gateway for transport of nutrients into, and wastes out of, the cell
which functions (of cytoplasmic membrane) is the site of many proteins that participate in transport, bioenergetics, and chemotaxis
which functions (of cytoplasmic membrane) is the site of generation and use of the proton motive force
simple diffusion of small hydrophobic
molecules through hydrophobic part of membrane
of molecules through specific
transporter membrane proteins
1. Facilitated Diffusion
2. Active Transport
(primary & secondary)
3. Group Translocation
movement of molecules across membranes (3)
its protein speeds the
movement of a chemical through a
membrane in the absence of energy input
primary active transport
Use ATP as energy source
secondary active transport
Use others than ATP
as energy source
chemical modification of the transported substance driven by phosphoenolpyruvate
driven by the energy in the proton motive force
glucose, fructose, or mannose
what transported molecule is chemically modified during the group translocation transport?
1. Provide support for cell membrane to prevent osmotic lysis.
2. Make cell rigid.
3. Give shape (morphology), at least partially
what are 3 cell wall functions?
cell wall architecture
what is one of the structures
distinguishing prokaryotes from eukaryotes. ?
gram positive and gram negative
Bacteria can be divided into what two groups based on cell wall structure
Rigid layer that provides strength to cell wall
Each glycan unit contributes a
peptide and the two peptides are
In G(-), two tetrapeptides are
directly cross-linked but in G(+)
two tetrapeptides are linked
through a short peptide called?
cells that have lost its cell
wall completely using enzymatic mean
cells that have lost most
of cell wall material but not completely
prokaryotes without cell walls
Prokaryotes having cell wall but