person with expertise and power who is able to influence the opinions and behavior of others
Best research evidence
produced by the conduct and synthesis of numerous, high quality studies in a health related area. The best research evidence is generated in the areas of health promotion, illness prevention, and assessment diagnosis and the management of acute and chronic illnesses.
appropriation and use of knowledge from other disciplines to guide nursing practice
in depth analysis and systematic description of one patient or group of similar patients to promote understanding of nursing interventions.
a practitioners knowledge skills and past experience in accurately assessing diagnosing and managing an individual patients health needs
writing of a prescription to produce the desired outcomes in practice.
critical appraisal of research
examination of the strengths weaknesses meaning and significance of nursing studies using four steps: comprehension, comparison, analysis, and evaluation
reasoning from the general to the specific or from a general premise to a particular situation.
identification of the characteristics of nursing phenomena or of the relationships among these phenomena
evidence based guidelines
patient care guidelines that are based on synthesized research findings from meta-analyses integrative reviews of research and extensive clinical trials supported by consensus from recognized national experts and affirmed by outcomes obtained by clinicians
clarification of relationships among variables and identification of reasons why certain events occur.
evidence based practice
the conscientious integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patients values and needs in the delivery of high quality cost effective health care.
reasoning from the specific to the general, in which particular instances are observed and then combines into a larger whole or general statement
identification, analysis, and synthesis of research findings from independent quantitative outcomes and qualitative studies to determine the current knowledge in a particular area.
insight or understanding of a situation or an event as a whole that usually cannot be logically explained
information that is acquired in a variety of ways, is expected to be an accurate reflection of reality and is incorporated and used to direct a person's actions
intense form of role modeling in which an expert nurse serves as a teacher, sponsor, guide, exemplar, and counselor for a novice nurse
performing statistical analyses to integrate and synthesize findings from completed studies to determine what is known and not known about a particular research area. *Pools the results from previous studies into a single quantitative analysis.
synthesis of multiple primary qualitative studies to develop a description of current knowledge in the area
scientific process that validated and refines existing knowledge and generates knowledge that directly and indirectly influences clinical nursing practice
important scientific methodology that was developed to examine the end results of patient care. They incorporate evaluation research, epidemiology and economic theory perspectives.
knowledge gained through participation in rather than observation of an event situation, or circumstance. Benner model: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert
estimation of the probability of a specific outcome in a given situation that can be achieved through research
proposition or statement of the proposed relationship between two or more concepts
systematic, subjective methodological approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning
formal, objective, systematic processes used to describe variables, test relationships between them, and examine cause and effect interactions among variables.
qualitative research synthesis
process and product of systematically reviewing and formally integrating the finding from qualitative studies
processing and organizing ideas to reach conclusions, types of reasoning include problematic, operational, dialectic, and logistic
diligent, systematic inquiry or investigation to validate and refine existing knowledge and generate new knowledge
process of teaching less experiences professionals by demonstrating model behavior
structured, comprehensive synthesis of quantitative and outcomes studies in a particular healthcare area to determine the best research evidence available for expert clinicians to use to promote evidence based practice
truths or beliefs that are based on customs and past trends
trial and error
approach with unknown outcomes used in an uncertain situation when other sources of knowledge are unavailable
synthesis of qualitative research involving the critical analysis of primary qualitative studies and synthesis of findings into a new theory or framework from the topic of interest.
A systematic, subjective, approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning
closely related to holism and proposes that knowledge about a particular phenomenon is organized into a cluster if linked ideas
valued because of rigorous studies are seen as being more credible and of greater worth
refers to both a philosophy and a group of research methods congruent with the philosophy. Note: Person as integrated with the environment. World shapes self and self shapes world. Phenomenon / Experience
Grounded theory research
an inductive technique that emerged from the disipline of sociology
developed by anthropologist as a method to study cultures through immersion in the culture for a significant period of time
involves studying behaviors from within the culture
involves studying behavior from outside the culture and examining similarities and differences across cultures
Focuses mainly on observing and documenting interactions with people of how daily life conditions and patterns are influencing human care, health, and nursing care practices
examines events of the past
Material most likely to shed true light on the information the researcher seeks
written by someone who previously read and summarized the primary source material
subjects in qualitative studies. Cooperatively carries out study - participating.
nature has an impact on the collection and interpretation of data
increasing familiarity with aspects of a culture
researcher becomes a part of the culture and loses the ability to observe clearly
queries made by the researcher to obtain more information from the participant about a particular interview question
No fixed sequence of questions
designed to obtain the participants' perceptions of a specific topic in a setting that is permissive and nonthreatening
Moderator or facilitator
conducts focus groups.
a fundamental method of gathering data for qualitative studies, especially ethnography studies. Gather first-hand information in natural setting.
observations recorded during the observation
text of recorded interviews commonly used in qualitative studies
Analysis of changes or patterns in a particular event being studied based on written descriptions of historical events, letters, and documents
designed to reconstruct and interpret the life of an ordinary person
examines a single unit within the context of its real-life environment
Dwelling with the data
immersion in the data
Reducing the volume of the data so researcher can more effectively examine.
the process of reading the data, breaking text down into subparts, and giving a LABEL to that part.
researcher explores personal feelings and experiences that may influence the study and integrates this understanding into the study
Suspending or laying aside what the researcher knows about the experience being studied in phenomenological research.
The exploration and description of phenomena in real-life situations; provides an accurate account of characteristics of particular individuals, situations, or groups. Descriptive studies are usually conducted with large numbers of subjects, in natural settings, with no manipulation of the situation in anyway.
Involves the systematic investigation of relationships between or among variables. To do this, the researcher measures the selected variables in a sample and then uses correlational statistics to determine the relationships among the variables.
Examines CASUAL relationships or determines the effect of one variable on another. Thus, these studies involve implementing a treatment and examining the effects of this treatment using selected methods of measurement
An objective, systematic, highly controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena in nursing practice.
Includes randomizing subjects into groups, collecting data, and conducting statistical analyses.
A formal, objective, rigorous, systematic process for generating numerical information about the world.
Basic research (or pure research)
scientific investigation that involves the pursuit of "knowledge for knowledge's sake" or for the pleasure of learning and finding truth
Applied research (or practical research)
scientific investigation conducted to generate knowledge that will directly influence or improve clinical practice. The purpose of applied research is to solve problems, make decisions, or predict or control outcomes in real-life practice situations.
the striving for excellence in research, and it requires discipline, adherence to detail, and strict accuracy.
encompasses accuracy, detail, and order. Precision is evident in the concise statement of the research purpose and detailed development of the study design
involves the imposing of rules by the researcher to decrease the possibility of error, thereby increasing the probability that the study's findings are an accurate reflection of reality
Anything that can interfere with obtaining a clear understanding of the relationships among the study variables
The process of selecting subjects who are representative of the population being studied. Random sampling usually provides a sample that is representative of a population because each member of the population is selected independently and has an equal chance or probability of being included in the study.
the location in which a study is conducted
natural setting, or field setting
an uncontrolled, real-life situation or environment
partially controlled setting
an environment that the researcher has manipulated or modified in some way.
highly controlled setting
an artificially constructed environment developed for the sole purpose of conducting research
includes a purpose, a series of actions, and a goal
involves the systematic identification of a problem, determination of goals related to the problem, identification of possible approaches to achieve those goals (planning), implementation of selected approaches, and evaluation of goal achievement
subset of the problem-solving process. The steps of the nursing process are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation, and modification
requires an understanding of a unique language and involves the rigorous application of a variety of research methods
quantitative research process
involves conceptualizing a research project, planning and implementing that project, and communicating the findings
an area of concern in which there is a gap in the knowledge base needed for nursing practice
generated from the problem and identifies the specific goal of the study. The goal of a study might be to identify, describe, or explain a situation; predict a solution to a situation; or control a situation to produce positive outcomes in practice.
generates a picture of what is known and not known about a particular problem and to document why a study needs to be conducted
the abstract, theoretical basis for a study that enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing's body of knowledge
consists of an integrated set of defined concepts and relational statements that present a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control the phenomenon.
concepts at various levels of abstraction that are measured, manipulated, or controlled in a study
provides a variable or concept with theoretical meaning (Burns & Grove, 2009), and it either comes from a theorist's definition of the concept or is developed through concept analysis
Developed by researchers so that the variable can be measured or manipulated in a study
statements that are taken for granted or are considered true, even though they have not been scientifically tested.
restrictions in a study that may decrease the credibility and generalizability of the findings
the extension of the implications of the research findings from the sample studied to a larger population
restricts the abstract generalization of findings and are reflected in the study framework and the conceptual and operational definitions of the variables. Theoretical limitations might include a concept that lacks clarity of definition in the theory used to develop the study framework; the unclear relationships among some concepts in the theorist's work; a study variable that lacks a clear link to a concept in the framework; and an objective, question, or hypothesis that lacks a clear link to a relationship (or proposition) expressed in the study framework.
can limit the credibility of the findings and restrict the population to which the findings can be generalized. Limitation or poor design in the way the 'experiment' was setup. E.g, Unrepresentative sample, only one location, limited control over data collection, etc. The methodology of the design is flawed or not the best.
a blueprint for the conduct of a study that maximizes control over factors that could interfere with the study's desired outcome
a smaller version of a proposed study, and researchers frequently conduct these to refine the methodology
all elements (individuals, objects, or substances) that meet certain criteria for inclusion in a study
a subset of the population that is selected for a particular study, and the members of a sample are the subjects or participants
defines the process of selecting a group of people, events, behaviors, or other elements with which to conduct a study
the process of assigning "numbers to objects (or events or situations) in accord with some rule"
the precise, systematic gathering of information relevant to the research purpose or the specific objectives, questions, or hypotheses of a study
reduces, organizes, and gives meaning to the data. Analysis techniques conducted in quantitative research include descriptive and inferential analyses (see Chapter 11) and some sophisticated, advanced analyses
Interpretation of research outcomes
involves examining the results from data analysis, exploring the significance of the findings, forming conclusions, generalizing the findings, considering the implications for nursing, and suggesting further studies. *The results obtained from data analyses require interpretation to be meaningful.
summarizes the major elements of a study and identifies the contributions of that study to nursing knowledge.
a clear, concise summary of a study
provides patients with an opportunity to receive an experimental treatment that might have beneficial results
conducted to generate knowledge for a discipline; the results of the study might benefit future patients but probably will not benefit those acting as research subjects.
three ethical principles
respect for persons, beneficence, and justice
principle of respect for persons
indicates that people should be treated as autonomous agents with the right to self-determination and the freedom to participate or not participate in research.
principle of beneficence
encourages the researcher to do good and "above all, do no harm."
principle of justice
states that human subjects should be treated fairly in terms of the benefits and the risks of research.
are claims and demands that have been justified in the eyes of an individual or by the consensus of a group of people.
Those who have the freedom to conduct their lives as they choose without external controls.
occurs when one person intentionally presents an overt threat of harm or an excessive reward to another to obtain compliance.
covert data collection
subjects are unaware that research data are being collected
the actual misinforming of subjects for research purposes
Persons have less autonomy and are Assent to participate in research vulnerable and less advantaged because of legal or mental incompetence, terminal illness, or confinement to an institution
Assent to participate in research
a child's affirmative agreement to participate in research
Permission to participate in research
the agreement of parent(s) or guardian to the participation of their child or ward in research"
the freedom people have to determine the time, extent, and general circumstances under which their private information will be shared with or withheld from others
invasion of privacy
occurs when private information is shared without a person's knowledge or against his or her will.
healthcare providers, health plans, employers, and healthcare clearinghouses (public or private entities that process or facilitate the processing of health information).
Individually identifiable health information (IIHI)
any information, including demographics collected from an individual and related to physical or mental health or condition of an individual, the provision of health care, or payment for the provision of health care to an individual, and identifies the individual;
data use agreement
limits how the data set may be used and how it will be protected.
exists when the subject's identity cannot be linked, even by the researcher, with his or her individual responses
the researcher's management of private information shared by a subject or participant.
breach of confidentiality
occurs when a researcher, by accident or direct action, allows an unauthorized person to gain access to the raw data of a study.
discomfort and harm
In research, this can be physical, emotional, social, or economic, or any combination of these four
includes four elements: (1) disclosure of essential study information to the study participant or subject, (2) comprehension of this information by the subject, (3) competence of the subject to give consent, and (4) voluntary consent of the subject to participate in the study.
a study is examined for ethical concerns by a committee of the researcher's peers.
institutional review board (IRB)
a committee that reviews research to ensure that the investigator is conducting the research ethically.
assess the benefits and risks associated with the sampling method, consent process, procedures, and potential outcomes of the study
means fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in processing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.
the making up of results and recording or reporting them.
manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit, including those obtained through confidential review of others' research proposals and manuscripts.
Places the finding in a larger context and may link different themes or factors in the findings to each other.