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Combined the others that ppl made.

Authority

person with expertise and power who is able to influence the opinions and behavior of others

Best research evidence

produced by the conduct and synthesis of numerous, high quality studies in a health related area. The best research evidence is generated in the areas of health promotion, illness prevention, and assessment diagnosis and the management of acute and chronic illnesses.

Borrowing

appropriation and use of knowledge from other disciplines to guide nursing practice

case study

in depth analysis and systematic description of one patient or group of similar patients to promote understanding of nursing interventions.

clinical expertise

a practitioners knowledge skills and past experience in accurately assessing diagnosing and managing an individual patients health needs

control

writing of a prescription to produce the desired outcomes in practice.

critical appraisal of research

examination of the strengths weaknesses meaning and significance of nursing studies using four steps: comprehension, comparison, analysis, and evaluation

deductive reasoning

reasoning from the general to the specific or from a general premise to a particular situation.

description

identification of the characteristics of nursing phenomena or of the relationships among these phenomena

evidence based guidelines

patient care guidelines that are based on synthesized research findings from meta-analyses integrative reviews of research and extensive clinical trials supported by consensus from recognized national experts and affirmed by outcomes obtained by clinicians

explanation

clarification of relationships among variables and identification of reasons why certain events occur.

evidence based practice

the conscientious integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patients values and needs in the delivery of high quality cost effective health care.

inductive reasoning

reasoning from the specific to the general, in which particular instances are observed and then combines into a larger whole or general statement

integrative review

identification, analysis, and synthesis of research findings from independent quantitative outcomes and qualitative studies to determine the current knowledge in a particular area.

intuition

insight or understanding of a situation or an event as a whole that usually cannot be logically explained

knowledge

information that is acquired in a variety of ways, is expected to be an accurate reflection of reality and is incorporated and used to direct a person's actions

mentor-ship

intense form of role modeling in which an expert nurse serves as a teacher, sponsor, guide, exemplar, and counselor for a novice nurse

meta-analysis

performing statistical analyses to integrate and synthesize findings from completed studies to determine what is known and not known about a particular research area. *Pools the results from previous studies into a single quantitative analysis.

meta-summary

synthesis of multiple primary qualitative studies to develop a description of current knowledge in the area

nursing research

scientific process that validated and refines existing knowledge and generates knowledge that directly and indirectly influences clinical nursing practice

outcomes research

important scientific methodology that was developed to examine the end results of patient care. They incorporate evaluation research, epidemiology and economic theory perspectives.

personal experience

knowledge gained through participation in rather than observation of an event situation, or circumstance. Benner model: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert

prediction

estimation of the probability of a specific outcome in a given situation that can be achieved through research

premise

proposition or statement of the proposed relationship between two or more concepts

qualitative research

systematic, subjective methodological approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning

quantitative research

formal, objective, systematic processes used to describe variables, test relationships between them, and examine cause and effect interactions among variables.

qualitative research synthesis

process and product of systematically reviewing and formally integrating the finding from qualitative studies

reasoning

processing and organizing ideas to reach conclusions, types of reasoning include problematic, operational, dialectic, and logistic

research

diligent, systematic inquiry or investigation to validate and refine existing knowledge and generate new knowledge

role modeling

process of teaching less experiences professionals by demonstrating model behavior

systematic review

structured, comprehensive synthesis of quantitative and outcomes studies in a particular healthcare area to determine the best research evidence available for expert clinicians to use to promote evidence based practice

traditions

truths or beliefs that are based on customs and past trends

trial and error

approach with unknown outcomes used in an uncertain situation when other sources of knowledge are unavailable

meta-synthesis

synthesis of qualitative research involving the critical analysis of primary qualitative studies and synthesis of findings into a new theory or framework from the topic of interest.

Qualitative research

A systematic, subjective, approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning

Gestalt

closely related to holism and proposes that knowledge about a particular phenomenon is organized into a cluster if linked ideas

Rigor

valued because of rigorous studies are seen as being more credible and of greater worth

Phenomenology

refers to both a philosophy and a group of research methods congruent with the philosophy. Note: Person as integrated with the environment. World shapes self and self shapes world. Phenomenon / Experience

Grounded theory research

an inductive technique that emerged from the disipline of sociology

Ethnographic research

developed by anthropologist as a method to study cultures through immersion in the culture for a significant period of time

Emic approach

involves studying behaviors from within the culture

Etic approach

involves studying behavior from outside the culture and examining similarities and differences across cultures

Ethnonursing research

Focuses mainly on observing and documenting interactions with people of how daily life conditions and patterns are influencing human care, health, and nursing care practices

Historical research

examines events of the past

Primary source

Material most likely to shed true light on the information the researcher seeks

Secondary source

written by someone who previously read and summarized the primary source material

Participants

subjects in qualitative studies. Cooperatively carries out study - participating.

Researcher-participant relationship

nature has an impact on the collection and interpretation of data

Immersed

increasing familiarity with aspects of a culture

Going native

researcher becomes a part of the culture and loses the ability to observe clearly

Probes

queries made by the researcher to obtain more information from the participant about a particular interview question

Open-ended interviews

No fixed sequence of questions

Focus groups

designed to obtain the participants' perceptions of a specific topic in a setting that is permissive and nonthreatening

Moderator or facilitator

conducts focus groups.

Observation

a fundamental method of gathering data for qualitative studies, especially ethnography studies. Gather first-hand information in natural setting.

Field notes

observations recorded during the observation

Transcriptions

text of recorded interviews commonly used in qualitative studies

text analysis

Analysis of changes or patterns in a particular event being studied based on written descriptions of historical events, letters, and documents

Life story

designed to reconstruct and interpret the life of an ordinary person

Case study

examines a single unit within the context of its real-life environment

Dwelling with the data

immersion in the data

Data reduction

Reducing the volume of the data so researcher can more effectively examine.

Coding

the process of reading the data, breaking text down into subparts, and giving a LABEL to that part.

reflective thought

researcher explores personal feelings and experiences that may influence the study and integrates this understanding into the study

Bracketing

Suspending or laying aside what the researcher knows about the experience being studied in phenomenological research.

Descriptive research

The exploration and description of phenomena in real-life situations; provides an accurate account of characteristics of particular individuals, situations, or groups. Descriptive studies are usually conducted with large numbers of subjects, in natural settings, with no manipulation of the situation in anyway.

Correlational research

Involves the systematic investigation of relationships between or among variables. To do this, the researcher measures the selected variables in a sample and then uses correlational statistics to determine the relationships among the variables.

Quasi-experimental research

Examines CASUAL relationships or determines the effect of one variable on another. Thus, these studies involve implementing a treatment and examining the effects of this treatment using selected methods of measurement

Experimental research

An objective, systematic, highly controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena in nursing practice.

Experiment

Includes randomizing subjects into groups, collecting data, and conducting statistical analyses.

Quantitative research

A formal, objective, rigorous, systematic process for generating numerical information about the world.

Basic research (or pure research)

scientific investigation that involves the pursuit of "knowledge for knowledge's sake" or for the pleasure of learning and finding truth

Applied research (or practical research)

scientific investigation conducted to generate knowledge that will directly influence or improve clinical practice. The purpose of applied research is to solve problems, make decisions, or predict or control outcomes in real-life practice situations.

Rigor

the striving for excellence in research, and it requires discipline, adherence to detail, and strict accuracy.

precision

encompasses accuracy, detail, and order. Precision is evident in the concise statement of the research purpose and detailed development of the study design

Control

involves the imposing of rules by the researcher to decrease the possibility of error, thereby increasing the probability that the study's findings are an accurate reflection of reality

Extraneous variables

Anything that can interfere with obtaining a clear understanding of the relationships among the study variables

Sampling

The process of selecting subjects who are representative of the population being studied. Random sampling usually provides a sample that is representative of a population because each member of the population is selected independently and has an equal chance or probability of being included in the study.

setting

the location in which a study is conducted

natural setting, or field setting

an uncontrolled, real-life situation or environment

partially controlled setting

an environment that the researcher has manipulated or modified in some way.

highly controlled setting

an artificially constructed environment developed for the sole purpose of conducting research

process

includes a purpose, a series of actions, and a goal

problem-solving process

involves the systematic identification of a problem, determination of goals related to the problem, identification of possible approaches to achieve those goals (planning), implementation of selected approaches, and evaluation of goal achievement

nursing process

subset of the problem-solving process. The steps of the nursing process are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation, and modification

research process

requires an understanding of a unique language and involves the rigorous application of a variety of research methods

quantitative research process

involves conceptualizing a research project, planning and implementing that project, and communicating the findings

research problem

an area of concern in which there is a gap in the knowledge base needed for nursing practice

research purpose

generated from the problem and identifies the specific goal of the study. The goal of a study might be to identify, describe, or explain a situation; predict a solution to a situation; or control a situation to produce positive outcomes in practice.

literature review

generates a picture of what is known and not known about a particular problem and to document why a study needs to be conducted

framework

the abstract, theoretical basis for a study that enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing's body of knowledge

theory

consists of an integrated set of defined concepts and relational statements that present a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control the phenomenon.

Variables

concepts at various levels of abstraction that are measured, manipulated, or controlled in a study

conceptual definition

provides a variable or concept with theoretical meaning (Burns & Grove, 2009), and it either comes from a theorist's definition of the concept or is developed through concept analysis

operational definition

Developed by researchers so that the variable can be measured or manipulated in a study

Assumptions

statements that are taken for granted or are considered true, even though they have not been scientifically tested.

Limitations

restrictions in a study that may decrease the credibility and generalizability of the findings

Generalization

the extension of the implications of the research findings from the sample studied to a larger population

Theoretical limitations

restricts the abstract generalization of findings and are reflected in the study framework and the conceptual and operational definitions of the variables. Theoretical limitations might include a concept that lacks clarity of definition in the theory used to develop the study framework; the unclear relationships among some concepts in the theorist's work; a study variable that lacks a clear link to a concept in the framework; and an objective, question, or hypothesis that lacks a clear link to a relationship (or proposition) expressed in the study framework.

Methodological limitations

can limit the credibility of the findings and restrict the population to which the findings can be generalized. Limitation or poor design in the way the 'experiment' was setup. E.g, Unrepresentative sample, only one location, limited control over data collection, etc. The methodology of the design is flawed or not the best.

design

a blueprint for the conduct of a study that maximizes control over factors that could interfere with the study's desired outcome

pilot study

a smaller version of a proposed study, and researchers frequently conduct these to refine the methodology

population

all elements (individuals, objects, or substances) that meet certain criteria for inclusion in a study

sample

a subset of the population that is selected for a particular study, and the members of a sample are the subjects or participants

Sampling

defines the process of selecting a group of people, events, behaviors, or other elements with which to conduct a study

Measurement

the process of assigning "numbers to objects (or events or situations) in accord with some rule"

Data collection

the precise, systematic gathering of information relevant to the research purpose or the specific objectives, questions, or hypotheses of a study

Data analysis

reduces, organizes, and gives meaning to the data. Analysis techniques conducted in quantitative research include descriptive and inferential analyses (see Chapter 11) and some sophisticated, advanced analyses

Interpretation of research outcomes

involves examining the results from data analysis, exploring the significance of the findings, forming conclusions, generalizing the findings, considering the implications for nursing, and suggesting further studies. *The results obtained from data analyses require interpretation to be meaningful.

research report

summarizes the major elements of a study and identifies the contributions of that study to nursing knowledge.

abstract

a clear, concise summary of a study

Therapeutic research

provides patients with an opportunity to receive an experimental treatment that might have beneficial results

Nontherapeutic research

conducted to generate knowledge for a discipline; the results of the study might benefit future patients but probably will not benefit those acting as research subjects.

three ethical principles

respect for persons, beneficence, and justice

principle of respect for persons

indicates that people should be treated as autonomous agents with the right to self-determination and the freedom to participate or not participate in research.

principle of beneficence

encourages the researcher to do good and "above all, do no harm."

principle of justice

states that human subjects should be treated fairly in terms of the benefits and the risks of research.

Human rights

are claims and demands that have been justified in the eyes of an individual or by the consensus of a group of people.

autonomous agents

Those who have the freedom to conduct their lives as they choose without external controls.

Coercion

occurs when one person intentionally presents an overt threat of harm or an excessive reward to another to obtain compliance.

covert data collection

subjects are unaware that research data are being collected

deception

the actual misinforming of subjects for research purposes

diminished autonomy

Persons have less autonomy and are Assent to participate in research vulnerable and less advantaged because of legal or mental incompetence, terminal illness, or confinement to an institution

Assent to participate in research

a child's affirmative agreement to participate in research

Permission to participate in research

the agreement of parent(s) or guardian to the participation of their child or ward in research"

Privacy

the freedom people have to determine the time, extent, and general circumstances under which their private information will be shared with or withheld from others

invasion of privacy

occurs when private information is shared without a person's knowledge or against his or her will.

Covered entities

healthcare providers, health plans, employers, and healthcare clearinghouses (public or private entities that process or facilitate the processing of health information).

Individually identifiable health information (IIHI)

any information, including demographics collected from an individual and related to physical or mental health or condition of an individual, the provision of health care, or payment for the provision of health care to an individual, and identifies the individual;

data use agreement

limits how the data set may be used and how it will be protected.

anonymity

exists when the subject's identity cannot be linked, even by the researcher, with his or her individual responses

Confidentiality

the researcher's management of private information shared by a subject or participant.

breach of confidentiality

occurs when a researcher, by accident or direct action, allows an unauthorized person to gain access to the raw data of a study.

discomfort and harm

In research, this can be physical, emotional, social, or economic, or any combination of these four

Informed consent

includes four elements: (1) disclosure of essential study information to the study participant or subject, (2) comprehension of this information by the subject, (3) competence of the subject to give consent, and (4) voluntary consent of the subject to participate in the study.

institutional review

a study is examined for ethical concerns by a committee of the researcher's peers.

institutional review board (IRB)

a committee that reviews research to ensure that the investigator is conducting the research ethically.

benefit-risk ratio

assess the benefits and risks associated with the sampling method, consent process, procedures, and potential outcomes of the study

Research misconduct

means fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in processing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.

Fabrication

the making up of results and recording or reporting them.

Falsification

manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.

Plagiarism

the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit, including those obtained through confidential review of others' research proposals and manuscripts.

Interpretation

Places the finding in a larger context and may link different themes or factors in the findings to each other.

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